Electrocaloric effect in triglycine sulfate under equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamic conditions
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The direct and indirect measurements of intensive electrocaloric effect in a triglycine sulfate ferroelectric crystal are performed under equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamic conditions implemented in the adiabatic calorimeter. The effect of the electric field parameters (frequency, profile, and strength) on the value of the effect and degree of its reversibility are studied. The difference between the temperature variation values in a switched-on and switched-off dc field under quasi-isothermal conditions is established. The low-frequency periodic electric field induces the temperature gradient along the electrocaloric element and heat flux from its free end to the thermostated base. A significant excess of the field switching-off rate over the switching-on rate leads to a noticeable intensification of the cooling effect.
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