Efficiency droop in GaN LEDs at high current densities: Tunneling leakage currents and incomplete lateral carrier localization in InGaN/GaN quantum wells
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The phenomenon of the emission efficiency droop of InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) in light-emitting diode p-n structures is studied. The influence exerted by two basic processes on the emission efficiency is considered: tunnel injection into a QW and incomplete lateral carrier localization in compositional fluctuations of the band-gap width in InGaN. The sharp efficiency peak at low currents and the rapid efficiency droop with increasing current are due to tunneling leakage currents along extended defects, which appear as a result of a local increase in the electron hopping conductivity via the depletion n region and a corresponding local decrease in the height of the injection p barrier. A less sharp efficiency peak and a weak, nearly linear, decrease in efficiency with increasing current are caused by incomplete lateral carrier localization in the QW due to slowing-down of the carrier energy-relaxation rate and to the nonradiative recombination of mobile carriers.
KeywordsLight Emit Diode Carrier Localization Tail State Mobility Edge Quasi Fermi Level
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