Gravitation by Nonaxisymmetric Rotating Objects and Generation of High-Energy Particle Populations
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A novel process is proposed to create high-energy particle populations in well-organized plasma structures surrounding nonaxisymmetric systems in which one or more components orbit around another. Binaries of black holes or neutron stars and light objects rotating around a massive object are examples of current interest. The relevant tridimensional and time-dependent gravitational potentials are shown to sustain the excitation of vertically localized ballooning modes in a plasma structure imbedded in a vertical magnetic field. These modes are viewed as composed of waves oppositely propagating in the vertical direction and can be excited when their frequency can match that of the orbiting frequency of one object around another. The formation of high-energy particle populations is predicted on the basis of the mode–particle resonance interactions associated with the mode components and the presence or the formation of a high-energy beam is not required. Rather, a vertical oscillatory force acting on the surrounding plasma structure is a necessary factor. High-energy flares associated with composite systems or envisioned precursors to the collapse of binary of compact objects are consistent with the presented theory.
The work presented here followed from the proposed interpretation  of suggested precursor events preceding  the collapse of a neutron star binary, with M. Medvedev to whom the rederivation of Eq. (2) is due. It is a pleasure to thank M. Tavani for bringing  to my attention, R. Weiss for his timely comments and support, B. Basu for his collaboration, and the journal referee for his valuable suggestions.
This work was sponsored in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and in part by a grant of the Kavli Research Institute Fund.
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