# A Conjecture on Deducing General Relativity and the Standard Model with Its Fundamental Constants from Rational Tangles of Strands

- 13 Downloads

### Abstract

It appears possible to deduce black holes, general relativity and the standard model of elementary particles from one-dimensional strands that fluctuate at the Planck scale. This appears possible as long as only switches of skew strand crossings are observable, but not the strands themselves. Woven fluctuating strands behave like horizons and imply black hole entropy, the field equations of general relativity and cosmological observations. Tangled fluctuating strands in flat space imply Dirac’s equation. The possible families of unknotted rational tangles produce the spectrum of elementary particles. Fluctuating rational tangles also yield the gauge groups U(1), broken SU(2), and SU(3), produce all Feynman diagrams of the standard model, and exclude any unknown elementary particle, gauge group, and Feynman diagram. The conjecture agrees with all known experimental data. Predictions for experiments arise, and the fundamental constants of the standard model can be calculated. Objections are discussed. Predictions and calculations allow testing the conjecture. As an example, an ab initio estimate of the fine structure constant is outlined.

## Keywords:

strand conjecture tangle model quantum gravity standard model constants coupling constants fine structure constant## Notes

### 21. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author thanks Sergei Fadeev for his suggestion to avoid knotted tangles in the strand conjecture. The author thanks Jason Hise, Eric Rawdon, Tyler Spaeth, Jason Cantarella, Marcus Platzer, Antonio Martos, Ralf Metzler, Greg Egan, Andrzej Stasiak, Franz Aichinger, Thomas Racey, Peter Battey-Pratt, Klaus Tschira, and Louis Kauffman for support and suggestions. Above all, the author thanks his wife Britta, for everything. The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

## REFERENCES

- 1.V. de Sabbata and C. Sivaram, “On limiting field strengths in gravitation,” Found. Phys. Lett.
**6**, 561–570 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 2.T. Jacobson, “Thermodynamics of spacetime: The Einstein equation of state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.
**75**, 1260–1263 (1995).ADSMathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 3.G. W. Gibbons, “The maximum tension principle in general relativity,” Found. Phys.
**32**, 1891–1901 (2002).MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar - 4.C. Schiller, “General relativity and cosmology derived from principle of maximum power or force,” Int. J. Theor. Phys.
**44**, 1629–1647 (2005).CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 5.S. Carlip, “Dimension and dimensional reduction in quantum gravity,” Classical Quantum Gravity
**34**, 193001 (2017).ADSMathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 6.C. Schiller,
*The Strand Model—A Speculation on Unification*, The Adventure of Physics—Vol. VI (Motion Mountain, 2009); http://www.MotionMountain.net.Google Scholar - 7.R. P. Feynman,
*QED—the Strange Theory of Light and Matter*(Princeton University Press, 1988).Google Scholar - 8.E. Battey-Pratt and T. Racey, “Geometric model for fundamental particles,” Int. J. Theor. Phys.
**19**, 437–475 (1980).MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar - 9.J. Hise, Several animations visualizing the belt trick with multiple belts. http://www.entropygames.net.Google Scholar
- 10.A. Martos, Animation visualizing the fermion exchange behaviour of two tethered cores. http://vimeo.com/ 62143283.Google Scholar
- 11.L. H. Kauffman and S. Lambropoulou, “On the classification of rational tangles,” Adv. Appl. Math.
**33**, 199–237 (2004).MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 12.K. Reidemeister, Elementare Begründung der Knotentheorie, in
*Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universität Hamburg*(Hamburg, 1926), Vol. 5, pp. 24–32.Google Scholar - 13.J. A. Heras, “Can Maxwell’s equations be obtained from the continuity equation?,” Am. J. Phys.
**75**, 652–657 (2007).ADSMathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 14.G. Egan, Two animations of the belt trick. http://www.gregegan.net/APPLETS/21/21.html.Google Scholar
- 15.L. H. Kauffman,
*Knots and Physics*(World Sci., Singapore, 1991).CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar