Cooling of neutron stars and hybrid stars with a stiff hadronic EoS
Within the “nuclear medium cooling” scenario of neutron stars all reliably known temperature—age data, including those of the central compact objects in the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and XMMU-J1732, can be comfortably explained by a set of cooling curves obtained by variation of the star mass within the range of typical observed masses. The recent measurements of the masses of the pulsars PSR J1616-2230, PSR J0348-0432 and J00737-3039B and the companion of J1756-2251 provide independent proof for the existence of neutron stars with masses in a broad range from 1.2 to 2M⊙ The values M > 2M⊙ call for sufficiently stiff equations of state for neutron star matter. We investigate the response of the set of neutron star cooling curves to a stiffening of the nuclear equation of state so that maximum masses of about 2.4M⊙ would be accessible and to a deconfinement phase transition from such stiff nuclear matter in the outer core to color superconducting quark matter in the inner core. Without a readjustment of cooling inputs the mass range required to cover all cooling data for the stiff DD2 equation of state should include masses of 2.426M⊙ for describing the fast cooling of CasA while the existence of a quark matter core accelerates the cooling so that CasA cooling data are described with a hybrid star of mass 1.674M⊙.
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