Physics of Particles and Nuclei

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 47–91 | Cite as

Classical and quantum discrete dynamical systems

  • V. V. Kornyak
Article

Abstract

We study deterministic and quantum dynamics from a constructive “finite” point of view, since the introduction of the continuum or other actual infinities in physics poses severe conceptual and technical difficulties, and while all of these concepts are not really needed in physics, which is in fact an empirical science. Particular attention is paid to the symmetry properties of discrete systems. For a consistent description of the symmetries of dynamical systems at different time instants and the symmetries of various parts of such systems, we introduce discrete analogs of gauge connections. These gauge structures are particularly important to describe the quantum behavior. The symmetries govern the fundamental properties of the behavior of dynamical systems. In particular, we can show that the moving soliton-like structures are inevitable in a deterministic (classical) dynamical system, whose symmetry group breaks the set of states into a finite number of orbits of the group. We demonstrate that the quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. This behavior is a result of the fundamental inability to trace the identity of indistinguish-able objects during their evolution. Information is only available on invariant statements and values related with such objects. Using general mathematical arguments, any quantum dynamics can be shown to reduce to a sequence of permutations. The quantum interferences occur in the invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry groups of dynamical systems. The observables can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. We also show that in order to describe quantum phenomena it is sufficient to use cyclotomic fields—the minimal extensions of natural numbers suitable for quantum mechanics, instead of a non-constructive number system—the field of complex numbers. The finite groups of symmetries play the central role in this review. In physics there is an additional reason for such groups to be of interest. Numerous experiments and observations in particle physics point to the importance of finite groups of relatively low orders in a number of fundamental processes. The origin of these groups has no explanation within presently recognized theories, such as the Standard Model.

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. V. Kornyak
    • 1
  1. 1.Joint Institute for Nuclear ResearchDubnaRussia

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