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Solitons and localized dissipative structures are the most natural and well-observed manifestations of nonlinear dynamics of energetically open systems at all scales ranging from the quantum structures to astrophysical objects. Depending on the system parameters and an adequate scaling, these phenomena are successfully described by the equations of Korteweg de Vries, Gross–Pitaevskiy, Kadomtsev–Petviashvili, Ginzburg–Landau, and their modifications. In this paper, we shall discuss formation and dynamics of magnetic solitons observed in the solar atmosphere. In particular, we focus on the highly dynamic environment of sunspot areas vastly populated by magnetic solitons. We discuss the properties of these solitons based on their observed signatures, along with their role in dynamics of overlying corona. The results of quantitative analysis of observational data based on the MHD theory of solitary structures are presented.
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