Controlled growth of filamentary crystals and fabrication of single-crystal whisker probes
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The growth of filamentary crystals (whiskers) on a single-crystal substrate through the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism is described. The possibility of fabricating oriented systems of whiskers on the basis of this mechanism of crystal growth is noted. A phenomenon that is important for nanotechnology is noted: the existence of a critical diameter of whiskers, below which they are not formed. The phenomenon of radial periodic instability, which is characteristic of nanowhiskers, is described and the ways of its elimination are shown. The possibility of transforming whiskers into single-crystal tips and the growth of crystalline diamond particles at their apices are noted as important for practice. Possible applications of systems of whiskers and tips are described briefly. Particular attention is paid to the latest direction in whisker technology—fabrication of single-crystal whisker probes for atomic force microscopy.
PACS numbers81.10.-h 68.70.+w
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