The Influence of Superflares of Host Stars on the Dynamics of the Envelopes of Hot Jupiters
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Results of a study of the influence of solar-type host stars superflares on the gas dynamics of the extended envelopes of giant exoplanets are presented. During flare events, the radiation intensity of the host star in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray can increase by several orders of magnitude for a short time, leading to strong local heating of the exoplanet atmosphere on the side facing the star, with the formation of shocks in the atmosphere. Computations of the gas-dynamical response of the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HD 209458b to characteristic superflares of solar-like stars were carried out earlier in  using a one-dimensional aeronomical model correctly taking into account heating and chemical processes in the atmosphere. To investigate the outflow of atmospheric gas, the results obtained with this onedimensional model were used as simple boundary conditions for computations of the three-dimensional flow structure after a flare. The results of these three-dimensional gas-dynamical computations show that the mass ejection of the flare increases the size of the envelope over several hours, which could be detected with existing observing facilities. It is shown that the mass-loss rates for the most powerful superflare considered could be enhanced by an order of magnitude over several tens of hours after the flare.
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