Mechanisms for saturation of nonlinear pulsed and periodic signals in focused acoustic beams
Acoustic fields of powerful ultrasound sources with Gaussian spatial apodization and initial excitation in the form of a periodic wave or single pulse are examined based on the numerical solution of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation. The influence of nonlinear effects on the spatial structure of focused beams, as well as on the limiting values of the acoustic field parameters is compared. It is demonstrated that pressure saturation in periodic fields is mainly due to the effect of nonlinear absorption at a shock front, while in pulsed fields is due to the effect of nonlinear refraction. The limiting attainable values for the peak positive pressure in periodic fields turned out to be higher than the analogous values in pulsed acoustic fields. The total energy in a beam of periodic waves decreases with the distance from the source faster than in the case of a pulsed field, but it becomes concentrated within much smaller spatial region in the vicinity of the focus. These special features of nonlinear effect manifestation provide an opportunity to use pulsed beams for more efficient delivery of wave energy to the focus and to use periodic beams for attaining higher values of pressure in the focal region.
Keywordsultrasound periodic and pulsed signals nonlinear effects focused beams nonlinear absorption nonlinear refraction
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