Nonlinear pulsed ultrasound beams radiated by rectangular focused diagnostic transducers
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A numerical model for simulating nonlinear pulsed beams radiated by rectangular focused transducers, which are typical of diagnostic ultrasound systems, is presented. The model is based on a KZK-type nonlinear evolution equation generalized to an arbitrary frequency-dependent absorption. The method of fractional steps with an operator-splitting procedure is employed in the combined frequency-time domain algorithm. The diffraction is described using the implicit backward finite-difference scheme and the alternate direction implicit method. An analytic solution in the time domain is employed for the nonlinearity operator. The absorption and dispersion of the sound speed are also described using an analytic solution but in the frequency domain. Numerical solutions are obtained for the nonlinear acoustic field in a homogeneous tissue-like medium obeying a linear frequency law of absorption and in a thermoviscous fluid with a quadratic frequency law of absorption. The model is applied to study the spatial distributions of the fundamental and second harmonics for a typical diagnostic ultrasound source. The nonlinear distortion of pulses and their spectra due to the propagation in tissues are presented. A better understanding of nonlinear propagation in tissue may lead to improvements in nonlinear imaging and in specific tissue harmonic imaging.
PACS numbers43.80.Vj 43.20.El 43.25.-x
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