Russian Journal of Marine Biology

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 252–257 | Cite as

Life cycle of tetrodotoxin-producing Bacillus sp. on solid and liquid medium: Light and electron microscopy studies

  • O. A. Shokur
  • T. Yu. Magarlamov
  • D. I. Melnikova
  • E. A. Gorobets
  • I. A. Beleneva


The lifecycle of the Bacillus sp. 1839 cultivated during a long period on solid and liquid Youschimizu-Kimura medium was investigated, and then bacteria and spores were studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Sporulation in this strain is distinguished by engulfment of forespore by mother cell. In the liquid medium, bacteria have the decondensed nucleoid and the loose granular component of cytoplasm; bacteria and spores are generally smaller; the outer coat of spores includes 2 concentric rings. On the solid substratum, the nucleoid is condensed, and the cytoplasmic region is extensive and dense; a longer cultivation stimulates transition of vegetative cells into the spore form; spores have a thicker outer coat with 3–5 rings. On the solid substratum, sporulation in Bacillus sp. 1839 is spontaneous, without additional stimulation; spores have a larger diameter and thicker layers than those in the liquid medium. This research contributes to the current understanding of biotechnological tetrodotoxin production from a bacterial raw material.


tetrodotoxin Bacillus forespore tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria transmission electron microscopy 


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. A. Shokur
    • 2
  • T. Yu. Magarlamov
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. I. Melnikova
    • 2
  • E. A. Gorobets
    • 2
  • I. A. Beleneva
    • 1
  1. 1.Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East BranchRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia
  2. 2.School of BiomedicineFar Eastern Federal UniversityVladivostokRussia

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