Advertisement

Russian Journal of Marine Biology

, Volume 39, Issue 7, pp 455–473 | Cite as

Illusions and realities of the ecosystem approach to the study and management of marine and oceanic biological resources

Article

Abstract

The scientific and applied problem of the ecosystem approach to the management of marine biological resources arose during the last quarter of the 20th century as a component of the Rational Nature Use Concept. This occurred mostly because the existing fishery rules and concepts of the optimum yield theory, which were introduced in the practice of fishery regulations, have proven to be insufficiently effective to conserve biological resources and provide stability of the fishery resource base. The ecosystem approach to biological-resource management implies a change of the autecological studies of commercial stock units (populations) and the managerial single-species models for the sustainable-sized management, taking the impacts of the fishery on marine ecosystems into account, as well as those of marine ecosystems on the fishery. At present, the ecosystem-based biological-resource management includes a complex of ecological topics and issues, such as biodiversity conservation, effect of climate changes, sustainability of stocks and communities, interspecies relationships, multi-species fishery, conservation of rare species, protection of especially important water bodies and landscapes, biotope degradation, anti-pollution measures, invasive species, ranching aquaculture, genetic diversity, etc. The main current problem, besides insufficient knowledge of many of these issues, is how to practically integrate such a large number of parameters into the management system. Thus, the complicated and long-term problem of ecosystem management of marine biological resources should be solved step-by-step, following the progress in the technical capabilities and concepts of natural processes. As well, certain better-studied elements of the ecosystem approach should be implemented first in the practice of management, while taking the regional specifics into account.

Keywords

forecast ecosystem approach marine biological resources biocoenoses nekton 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Atlas kolichestvennogo raspredeleniya nektona v zapadnoi chasti Beringova morya (Atlas of Quantitative Distribution of Nekton in the Western Bering Sea), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Moscow: Nats. Ryb. Resur., 2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atlas kolichestvennogo raspredeleniya nektona v Okhotskom more (Atlas of Quantitative Distribution of Nekton in the Sea of Okhotsk), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Moscow: Nats. Ryb. Resur., 2003.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atlas kolichestvennogo raspredeleniya nektona v severozapadnoi chasti Tikhogo okeana (Atlas of Quantitative Distribution of Nekton in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Moscow: Nats. Ryb. Resur., 2005.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Atlas kolichestvennogo raspredeleniya nektona v severozapadnoi chasti Yaponskogo morya (Atlas of Quantitative Distribution of Nekton in the Northwestern Sea of Japan), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Moscow: Nats. Ryb. Resur., 2004.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Babayan, V.K., Predostorozhnyi podkhod k otsenke obshchego dopustimogo ulova (ODU) (The Precautionary Approach to the Assessment of Total Allowable Catch (TAC)), Moscow: VNIRO, 2000.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Balykin, P.A., Sostoyaniye i resursy rybolovstva v zapadnoi chasti Beringova morya (State and Resources of Fishery in the Western Bering Sea), Moscow: VNIRO, 2006.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belyaev, V.A., Ekosistema zony techeniya Kurosio i yeye dinamika (The Ecosystem of the Kuroshio Current Zone and Its Dynamics), Khabarovsk: Khabarovsk. Knizh. Izd., 2003.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Borets, L.A., Donnye ikhtiotseny rossiiskogo shel’fa dal’nevostochnykh morei: sostav, struktura, elementy funktsionirovaniya i promyslovoye znacheniye (Benthic Ichthyocoenes on the Russian Shelf of the Far Eastern Seas: Composition, Structure, Functioning Elements, and Commercial Significance), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 1997.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Borodin, R.G. and Bulgakova, T.I., Possibility of using the models of multi-species fishery for harvested communities of the Far East, Materialy 3-ey Vseros. nauch.-prakt. konf. “Prirodnye resursy, ikh sovremennoye sostoyaniye, okhrana, promyslovoye i prakticheskoye ispol’zovaniye” (Proc. 3rd All-Russia Sci. Practical Conf. “Natural Resources, Their Contemporary State, Protection, Commercial, and Practical Use”), Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Kamchat. Gos. Tech. Univ., 2012.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bocharov, L.N., A perspective approach to providing the human population with fishery products, Izv. TINRO, 2004, vol. 138, pp. 3–18.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bulatov, O.A. and Kotenev, B.N., Prospects of the ecosystem fishery management, Tezisy dokl. Vseros. nauch. konf. “Ustoichivoye ispol’zovaniye biologicheskikh resursov morei Rossii: problemy i perspektivy” (Proc. All-Russia Sci. Conf. “Sustainable Use of Biological Resources in the Russian Seas: Problems and Prospects”), Moscow: VNIRO, 2012, pp. 10–11.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Volvenko, I.V., Integral characteristics of the macrofauna in the pelagic zone of the Northwestern Pacific, Extended Abstract of Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation, Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2009.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Volkov, A.F., Zooplankton of the Far Eastern seas: composition of communities, interannual dynamics, significance in diet of nekton, Extended Abstract of Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation, Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 1996.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dementyeva, T.V., Biologicheskoye obosnovaniye promyslovykh prognozov (Biological Substantiation of Fishery Forecasts), Moscow: Pishch. Prom-st, 1976.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dolgov, A.V., Composition, formation, and trophic structure of the ichthyocene of the Barents Sea, Extended Abstract of Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow: VNIRO, 2012.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dulepova, E.P., Sravnitel’naya bioproduktivnost’ makroekosistem dal’nevostochnykh morei (Comparative Bioproductivity of Macroecosystems of the Far Eastern Seas), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2002.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dyakov, Yu.P., Kambaloobraznye (Pleuronectiformes) dal’nevostochnykh morei Rossii (Flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) of the Far Eastern Seas of Russia), Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: Kamchat. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Morsk. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2011.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ivanov, O.A. and Sukhanov, V.V., Struktura nektonnykh soobshchestv prikuril’skikh vod (The Structure of Nekton Communities in Waters off the Kuril Islands), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2002.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Izhevskii, G.K., Okeanologicheskiye osnovy formirovaniya promyslovoi produktivnosti morei (Oceanological Grounds for Formation of Commercial Productivity of Seas), Moscow: Pishch. Prom-st, 1961.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Izhevskii, G.K., Sistemnaya osnova prognozirovaniya okeanologicheskikh uslovii i vosproizvodstva ryb (System Basis for Forecasting the Oceanological Conditions and Reproduction of Fish), Moscow: VNIRO, 1964.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Klyashtorin, L.B. and Lyubushin, A.A., Tsiklicheskiye izmeneniya klimata i ryboproduktivnosti (Cyclic Changes of Climate and Fish Productivity), Moscow: VNIRO, 2005.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kolpakov, N.V., Dolganova, N.T., Nadtochii, V.A., et al., Ecosystem studies of bioresources in coastal and estuarine waters of southern Primorsky Krai, TINRO-85. Itogi desyatiletnei deyatel’nosti. 2000–2010 gg. (TINRO-85. Results of the one-decade activity. 2000–2010.), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2010, pp. 103–128.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kotenev, B.N., The ecosystem strategy of assessment of bioresources in the World Ocean: global catch and reserves of the resource base, Mirovoi ocean (World Ocean), Moscow: VINITI, 2001, no. 2, pp. 69–88.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Krivenko, V.G., Natural cycles of our planet, Vestn. Ross. Akad. Estestv. Nauk, 2010, no. 3, pp. 25–29.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kuznetsova, N.A., Pitaniye i pishchevye otnosheniya nektona v epipelagiali severnoi chasti Okhotskogo morya (Dietary Habits and Interactions of Nekton in the Epipelagic Zone of the Northern Sea of Okhotsk), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2005.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Makrofauna pelagiali zapadnoi chasti Beringova morya: tablitsy vstrechayemosti, chislennosti i biomassy. 1982–2009 (Macrofauna in the Pelagic Zone of the Western Bering Sea: Tables of Occurrence, Abundance, and Biomass. 1982–2009), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2012.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Makrofauna pelagiali Okhotskogo morya: tablitsy vstrechayemosti, chislennosti i biomassy. 1984–2009 (Macrofauna in the Pelagic Zone of the Sea of Okhotsk: Tables of Occurrence, Abundance, and Biomass. 1984–2009), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2012.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Makrofauna pelagiali severo-zapadnoi chasti Tikhogo okeana: tablitsy vstrechayemosti, chislennosti i biomassy. 1979–2009 (Macrofauna in the Pelagic Zone of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean: Tables of Occurrence, Abundance, and Biomass. 1979–2009), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2012.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Moiseev, P.A., Biologicheskiye resursy Mirovogo okeana (Biological Resources of the World Ocean), Moscow: Pishch. Prom-st, 1969.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Monastyrskii, G.N., Dynamics of abundance of commercial fish, Tr. VNIRO, 1952, vol. 21, pp. 3–162.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nekton zapadnoi chasti Beringova morya. Tablitsy chislennosti, biomassy i sootnosheniya vidov (Nekton of the Western Bering Sea. Tables of Abundance, Biomass, and Proportions of Species), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2006.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nekton Okhotskogo morya. Tablitsy chislennosti, biomassy i sootnosheniya vidov (Nekton of the Sea of Okhotsk. Tables of Abundance, Biomass, and Proportions of Species), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2003.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nekton severo-zapadnoi chasti Tikhogo okeana. Tablitsy chislennosti, biomassy i sootnosheniya vidov (Nekton of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Tables of Abundance, Biomass, and Proportions of Species), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2005.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nekton severo-zapadnoi chasti Yaponskogo morya. Tablitsy chislennosti, biomassy i sootnosheniya vidov (Nekton of the Northwestern Sea of Japan. Tables of Abundance, Biomass, and Proportions of Species), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2004.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nikolskii, G.V., Teoriya dinamiki stada ryb (The Theory of Fish Stock Dynamics), Moscow: Pishch. Prom-st, 1974.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ovsyannikov, E.E., Dynamics of spatial distribution of walleye pollock eggs and juveniles in the northern Sea of Okhotsk, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2011.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ovsyannikov, E.E., Assessment of yield of walleye pollock generations in the northern Sea of Okhotsk, Izv. TINRO, 2009, vol. 157, pp. 64–80.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Parin, N.V., Ichthyofauna of the Russian seas: biodiversity and commercial potential, Izv. TINRO, 2004, vol. 137, pp. 226–231.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pribrezhno-morskoe prirodopol’zovanie: teoriya, indikatory, regional’nye osobennosti (Coastal and Offshore Nature Use: Theory, Indicators, Regional Features), Vladivostok: Dal’nauka, 2010.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sukhanov, V.V. and Ivanov O.A., Soobshchestva nektona v severo-zapadnoi chasti Yaponskogo morya (Nekton Communities in the Northwestern Sea of Japan), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2009.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Temnykh, O.S., Zavolokin, A.V., and Naidenko, S.V., On the results of learning the marine ecology of Pacific salmon: the past, the present, and the future, TINRO-85. Itogi desyatiletnei deyatel’nosti. 2000–2010 gg. (TINRO-85. Results of the one-decade activity. 2000–2010.), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2010, pp. 79–102.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Terentyev, D.A., The structure of catches of marine fisheries and the multi-species fishery in waters off Kamchatka, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2006.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Terentyev, D.A., Balykin, P.A., and Vasilets, P.M., Communities of marine fishes under the conditions of active harvesting (by the example of the western Bering Sea), Izv. TINRO, 2006, vol. 145, pp. 56–74.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Filin, A.A., Implementation of the ecosystem approach to bioresource management in the Barents Sea, Izv. TINRO, 2004, vol. 137, pp. 67–76.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chuchukalo, V.I., Pitanie i pishchevye otnosheniya nektona i nektobentosa v dal’nevostochnykh moryakh (Dietary Habits and Interactions of Nekton and Nektobenthos in the Far Eastern seas), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2006.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shnitnikov, A.V., Variability of the general wetness of the continents in the Northern Hemisphere, Zap. Geogr. O-va SSSR, 1957, vol. 16.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shuntov, V.P., Biologicheskiye resursy Okhotskogo morya (Biological Resources of the Sea of Okhotsk), Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1985.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shuntov, V.P., Biologiya dal’nevostochnykh morei Rossii (Biology of the Far Eastern Seas of Russia), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2001, vol. 1.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shuntov, V.P., Objectives for studies of biological resources, Biologicheskiye resursy Tikhogo okeana (Biological Resources of the Pacific Ocean), Moscow: Nauka, 1986, pp. 542–560.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shuntov, V.P., Zigzagi rybokhozyaistvennoi nauki (sub’ektivnye zametki) (Zigzags of fisheries science (Subjective Notes)), Vladivostok: TINRO, 1994.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shuntov, V.P., Some results of the ecosystem study of biological resources in the Far Eastern seas in connection with the objectives of further studies, Bull. no. 5 realizatsii “Kontseptsii dal’nevostochnoi basseinovoi programmy izucheniya tikhookeanskikh lososei” (Bull. no.5 of implementation of the “Concept of the Far Eastern Basin Program for the Study of Pacific Salmon”), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2010, pp. 186–195.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shuntov, V.P., The experience of total quantitative assessment of fish and cephalopod communities in Far Eastern Russian waters, Byul. № 7 izucheniya tikhookeanskikh lososei na Dal’nem Vostoke (Bull. № 7 of the Study of Pacific Salmon in the Far East), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2012, pp. 84–90Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shuntov, V.P., Ptitsy dal’nevostochnykh morei Rossii (Birds of the Far Eastern Seas of Russia), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 1997, part 1.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shuntov, V.P., Management of marine biological resources is still a dream, rather than reality, Izv. TINRO, 2004, vol. 137, pp. 232–240.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shuntov, V.P., Bocharov, L.N., Volvenko, I.V., et al., The ecosystem study of biological resources in Far Eastern marine waters of Russia: some results of the studies in the late 20th and the early 21st century, TINRO-85. Itogi desyatiletnei deyatel’nosti. 2000–2010 gg. (TINRO-85. Results of the one-decade activity. 2000–2010.), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2010, pp. 25–78.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Shuntov V.P., Volkov A.F., Temnykh, O.S., and Dulepova E.P., Mintai v ekosistemakh dal’nevostochnykh morei (Walleye pollock in Ecosystems of the Far Eastern Seas), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 1993.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shuntov V.P., Dulepova Ye.P., Temnykh, O.S., et al., Chapter 2: The state of biological resources in connection with dynamics of macroecosystems in the Economic Zone of the Far Eastern seas of Russia, Dinamika ekosistem i sovremennye problemy sokhraneniya bioresursnogo potentsiala morei Rossii (Dynamics of Ecosystems and the Modern Problems of Conservation of the Bioresource Potential in Russian Seas), Vladivostok: Dal’nauka, 2007, pp. 75–176.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shuntov V.P. and Temnykh, O.S., Tikhookeanskiye lososi v morskikh i okeanicheskikh ekosistemakh (Pacific Salmon in Sea and Ocean Ecosystems), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2008, vol. 1.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shuntov V.P. and Temnykh, O.S., Long-term dynamics of the biota of macroecosystems in the Bering Sea and the factors that determine it. Report 1. Retrospective analysis and overview of the concepts of patterns in dynamics of populations and communities of the Bering Sea, Izv. TINRO, 2008, vol. 155, pp. 3–32.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shuntov V.P. and Temnykh, O.S., Long-term dynamics of the biota of macroecosystems in the Bering Sea and the factors that determine it. Report 2. The modern status of pelagic and benthic communities in the Bering Sea, Izv. TINRO, 2008, vol. 155, pp. 33–65.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Shuntov V.P. and Temnykh, O.S., Tikhookeanskiye lososi v morskikh i okeanicheskikh ekosistemakh (Pacific Salmon in Sea and Ocean Ecosystems), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2011, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shuntov V.P. and Temnykh, O.S., Modern rearrangements in marine ecosystems in connection with climate changes: is this a priority of global or regional factors?, Byul. № 6 izucheniya tikhookeanskikh lososei na Dal’nem Vostoke (Bull. no. 6 of the Study of Pacific Salmon in the Far East), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2011, pp. 49–64.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yablokov, A.V., The transition from fishery to economy is the main problem of the study of marine mammals, Zool. J., 1976, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 183–190.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    The future of fisheries science in North America, Fish & Fisheries, Beamish, R.J. and Rothschild, B.J., Eds., Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Benson, A.J., Biodiversity and the future of Fisheries Science, Fish & Fisheries, Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31, pp. 33–48.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Blackburn, J.E., Predation by cod and pollock upon shrimp in the central and western Gulf of Alaska with speculation on predatory effects on other fishery resources, Bull. INPFC, 1986, no. 47, pp. 209–214.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cadrin, S.X. and Secor, D.H., Accounting for spatial population structure in stock assessment: past, present, and future, Fish & Fisheries, Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31, pp. 405–426.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cushing, D.H., Marine Ecology and Fisheries, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dawe, E.G., Koen-Alonso, M., Chabot, D., et al., Trophic interactions between key predatory fishes and crustaceans: comparison of the North-West Atlantic systems during a period of ecosystem change, Mar. Ecol.; Progr. Ser., 2012, vol. 469, pp. 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    FAO. Declaration of the Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, Reykjavik, Iceland, 2001, Inf. 25.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gjosaeter, J. and Kawaguchi, K., A review of the world resources of mesopelagic fishes, FAO Fish. Techn. Pap., 1980, no. 193, pp. 1–151.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Godø, O.R., Technology answers to the requirements set by the ecosystem approach, Fish & Fisheries, Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31, pp. 373–403.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gulland, J.A., The fishes resources of the ocean, FAO Fish. Techn. Pap., 1970, no. 97.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hjort, J., Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe, Rapp. Proc. Verb., 1914, vol. 20, pp. 1–228.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hollowed, A.B. and Bailey, K.M., Climate and Fisheries: the past, the future, and the need for coalescence, Fish & Fisheries, Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31, pp. 597–619.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ivanov, B.G. and Zgurovsky, K.A., The shrimps of the Bering Sea: distribution, biology, abundance, Proc. Intern. Sci. Sympos. Bering Sea Fish., NOAA, Seattle, 1989, pp. 258–279.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kaplan, I.C. and Levin, P., Ecosystem-based management of what? An emerging approach for balancing conflicting objectives in marine resource management, Fish & Fisheries, Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31, pp. 77–95.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Koen-Alonso, M., Some observations on the role of trophodynamic models for ecosystem approaches to fisheries, Fish & Fisheries, Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31, pp. 185–207.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Exploitation of Marine Communities, May, R.M., Ed., Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1984.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    O’Boyle, R.N., The implications of a paradigm shift in ocean resource management for fisheries stock assessment, Fish & Fisheries, Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31, pp. 49–76.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rice, J.C., Biodiversity, spatial management, and the ecosystem approach, Fish & Fisheries, Springer Science + Business Media, Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31, pp. 13–32.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rothschild, B.J. and Beamish, R.J., On the future of fisheries science, Fish & Fisheries, Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31, pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Schnute, J.T. and Richards, L.J., The high-dimensional future of fishery science, Fish & Fisheries, Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31, pp. 125–136.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schwing, F.B., Peterson, W.T., Cyr, N., and Osgood, K.E., Future research requirements for understanding the effects of climate variability on fisheries for their management, Fish & Fisheries, Netherlands: Springer Sci., 2009, ser. 31, pp. 619–634.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shuntov, V.P. and Dulepova, E.P., Walleye pollock in ecosystems of the Far Eastern seas, Workshop on the Importance of Prerecruit Walleye Pollock to the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ecosystems, Seattle, 1993, p. 20.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stepanenko, M.A., Bering Sea pollock recruitment, abundance, distribution and approach to fishery management under changing environment, PICES press, XXI Ann. Conf., 2012, pp. 74–75.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Stringer, K., Clemens, M., and Rivard, D., The changing nature of fisheries management and implications for science, Fish & Fisheries, Springer Science+Business Media, Netherlands, 2009, ser. 31, pp. 97–111.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wieland, K. and Siegstad, H., Environmental factors affecting recruitment of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis in West Greenland waters, Mar. Ecol.; Progr. Ser., 2012, vol. 469, pp. 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific Research Fisheries CenterVladivostokRussia

Personalised recommendations