The morphology of the apical organ and adjacent epithelium of pilidium prorecurvatum, a pelagic larva of an unknown heteronemertean (Nemertea)

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The morphology of pilidia ex gr. recurvatum from Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan) was studied by confocal laser scanning and transmission-electron microscopy. The studied pilidium larvae differ from pilidium recurvatum in lacking a posterior ciliary ring and by the presence of a caudal tuft. On this basis, pilidium prorecurvatum is proposed as a new name for the lavae. The apical organ of pilidium prorecurvatum is represented by a thickened epithelium, which consists of uniform columnar monociliary collar cells and is innervated by a pair of serotonergic intraepithelial neurons. The bodies of the serotonergic neurons are located outside of the apical organ, but occasional axons were found at the organ base. The rest of the pilidial epithelium is represented by flattened polygonal multiciliated cells with sparse microvilli; the bodies of two neurons lie in the helmet epithelium immediately adjacent to the apical organ. Morphologically, the apical organ of the pilidium corresponds well to that of other lophotrochozoan larvae, but their homology remains unclear.

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Correspondence to A. V. Chernyshev.

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Original Russian Text © A.V. Chernyshev, A.A. Astakhova, S.Sh. Dautov, V.V. Yushin, 2013, published in Biologiya Morya.

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Chernyshev, A.V., Astakhova, A.A., Dautov, S.S. et al. The morphology of the apical organ and adjacent epithelium of pilidium prorecurvatum, a pelagic larva of an unknown heteronemertean (Nemertea). Russ J Mar Biol 39, 116–124 (2013).

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  • nemerteans
  • pilidium
  • apical organ
  • nervous system
  • ultrastructure
  • confocal laser scanning microscopy