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Russian Journal of Developmental Biology

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 264–290 | Cite as

The Pax2 and Pax6 Transcription Factors in the Optic Nerve and Brain of Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after a Mechanical Eye Injury

  • E. V. Pushchina
  • A. A. Varaksin
  • D. K. Obukhov
Mechanisms of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation
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Abstract

The distribution of the Pax2+ transcription factor in the optic nerve after a mechanical eye injury on the side of damage and in the contralateral nerve has been studied in the trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. It has been found that injury of the optic nerve in this fish species causes Pax2+ reactive astrocytes involved in the initial stages of optic nerve axon regeneration to increase in number, especially in the area of the head and the proximal part of the optic nerve. As the optic nerve in trout is damaged, a significant growth of the heterogeneous population of Pax6+ cells occurs in the brain divisions that have direct retinal inputs, diencephalon, and optic tectum. A part of the Pax6+ cells have an undifferentiated phenotype and are a component of reactive neurogenic niches located in the periventricular zone and parenchymal regions of the brain. Another population of Pax6+ cells has the radial glial phenotype and appears as a result of activation of the constitutive neurogenic domains also within the newly formed reactive neurogenic niches. Thus, due to the optic nerve injury, a pronounced neurogenic response associated with the appearance of reactive neurogenic niches and radial glia arises both in the brain divisions with direct retinal projections and in those lacking the retinal projections as well as in remote regions. The results obtained indicate that the damage to the optic nerve causes an increased reactive neurogenesis in the brain of adult trout.

Keywords

transcription factor Pax2 Pax6 optic nerve reparative neurogenesis radial glia constitutive and reactive neurogenic niche 

Abbreviations

Pax2–

Pax2-immunonegative

Pax2+

Pax2-immunopositive

Pax6–

Pax6-immunonegative

Pax6+

Pax6- immunopositive

Vv

ventral zone of the telencephalon ventral region

Vd

dorsal zone of the telencephalon ventral region

Vl

lateral zone of the telencephalon ventral region

Vth

ventral thalamus

ONH

optic nerve head

Dd

dorsal zone of the telencephalon dorsal region

Dl

lateral zone of the telencephalon dorsal region

Dth

dorsal thalamus

Mth

medial thalamus

Dc

central zone of the telencephalon dorsal region

PTR

posterior tuberal region

IHC

immunohistochemistry

IOS

intraorbital segment

CeCr

cerebellar crest

SM

stratum marginale (marginal layer)

NSC

neural stem cell

ON

optic nerve

OD

optical density

OT

optic tectum

PVZ

periventricular zone

SGP

stratum griseum periventriculare (periventricular gray layer)

PZ

proliferative zone

POm

magnocellular nucleus of the preoptic region

POp

parvocellular nucleus of the preoptic region

RG

radial glia

RSC

reticulospinal cells

RF

reticular formation

SAC

stratum album centrale (central white layer)

SGAC

stratum griseum et album centrale (central gray and white layer)

SGC

stratum griseum centrale (central gray layer)

OLN

octavolateral efferent neurons

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. V. Pushchina
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. A. Varaksin
    • 1
  • D. K. Obukhov
    • 3
  1. 1.National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far East BranchRussian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia
  2. 2.Bogomoletz Institute of PhysiologyNational Academy of Sciences of UkraineKyivUkraine
  3. 3.St. Petersburg UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

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