Russian Journal of Developmental Biology

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 61–78 | Cite as

The Role of Transposons in Epigenetic Regulation of Ontogenesis

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Abstract

A new insight into the mechanisms underlying implementation of genomic information in the individual development of eukaryotes through interactions of transposons with epigenetic factors dynamically changing during each cell division is described. These mechanisms of stepwise implementation of individual genetic information with characteristic stage- and tissue-specific features in the activities of certain mobile genetic element families are evolutionarily fixed at the species level. In addition, the individual differences caused by their “unscheduled” transpositions can significantly change the regulatory network of the genome altering the phenotype. These changes in individual development can bring about new traits leading to either a disease or better fitness and represent an important component of the variation for natural selection in evolution. A large part of the eukaryotic transposons is altered by mutations and used for formation of the regulatory gene network, changes in the protein-coding genes, and emergence of new nonprotein-coding genes. When inserted into new loci, mobile genetic elements form the basis for microRNA and the domain structures of long noncoding RNA, responding to various types of stress; this is reflected in the specific features of individual development and contributes to variation. The epigenetic factors, including noncoding RNA, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, are tightly associated with mobile genetic elements. The specific features in transposon location in individuals that have emerged owing to spontaneous mutations or those caused by stress impacts can considerably change the interactions in gene networks. This influences the likelihood of survival under changing environmental conditions and reflects a distinct interrelation between the mechanisms of individual development and evolution. There is a parallelism between the mechanisms underlying the rearrangements of genomes caused by transposons in evolution and in individual development. In particular, the responsiveness of transposons to external and internal (microenvironment) factors forms the background for evolutionary construction of transposon-mediated tissue-specific activation patterns of certain transposons during each cell division, which leads to maturation of a reproductive organism. This mechanism is based on tight stage- and tissuespecific interrelation between transposons, epigenetic factors, and protein-coding genes.

Keywords

long noncoding RNA microRNA (miR) methylation mobile genetic elements histone modification nucleotide sequences environment repetitive elements transposons repeat-derived miR (RdmiR) 

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© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bashkir State UniversityUfaRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific CenterRussian Academy of SciencesUfaRussia

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