Russian Journal of Developmental Biology

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 117–127 | Cite as

Ecological Forms of Black Sea Brown Trout (Salmo trutta labrax) in the Mzymta River as Manifestation of Ontogenetic Plasticity

  • A. A. MakhrovEmail author
  • V. S. Artamonova
  • I. G. Murza
  • A. N. Pashkov
  • M. V. Ponomareva
  • S. I. Reshetnikov
  • O. L. Christoforov
Ontogenesis and Ecology


Populations of brown trout in the Mzymta River and its tributaries include anadromous (mainly female) and resident (mainly males) fish. Some resident males in the basin of the Mzymty River attain sexual maturity at the age 1+, and resident females mature at the age 2+ or 3+. The maximum age of resident fish is 4+ in the samples studied. Migrations of anadromous brown trout to the sea occur at the ages 1+, 2+, or 3+. Future spawners spend from 1 to 4 years at feeding grounds in the sea. Smolts of the population are characterized by performing not only spring but also autumn migrations to the sea. One smolt specimen has been detected upstream from the dam in the river where spawners of anadromous brown trout do not migrate; this means that the capability for sea migrations persists long in the population represented only by resident specimens of brown trout. The diversity of life cycles and ecological forms in populations of brown trout is not lower than in populations of brown trout in Northern and Western Europe. The comparison of the data obtained with published data makes it possible to come to the conclusion about the high plasticity of ontogenesis of Black Sea brown trout.


Salmonidae brown trout trout ontogenesis migrations maturation phenotypic plasticity gonads smolts 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Makhrov
    • 1
    • 2
  • V. S. Artamonova
    • 1
    • 2
  • I. G. Murza
    • 3
  • A. N. Pashkov
    • 4
  • M. V. Ponomareva
    • 5
  • S. I. Reshetnikov
    • 6
  • O. L. Christoforov
    • 3
  1. 1.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and EvolutionRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Siberian BranchRussian Academy of SciencesKrasnoyarskRussia
  3. 3.St. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  4. 4.Azov Research Institute of Fisheries, Krasnodar BranchKrasnodarRussia
  5. 5.Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  6. 6.Kuban State UniversityKrasnodarRussia

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