Crucial stages of embryogenesis of R. arvalis: Part 1. Linear measurements of embryonic structures

  • E. A. SevertsovaEmail author
  • A. S. Severtsov
Experimental Embryology


Investigations of individual variability have allowed us to reveal the crucial (=nodal) stages in embryogenesis of the moor frog (Rana arvalis Nills.). These crucial stages are: the late gastrula stage (stages 18–20), the hatching stages (stages 32–33) and, apparently, early metamorphosis (stage 39). Moreover, we have found that each embryonic structure passes through its specific crucial stages. For example, stage 34 is crucial for the trait “tail width” but is internodal for all other embryonic traits. At this stage, larva passes from an attached to a free-swimming life style. We also found considerable differences between the different frog populations in the the level of developmental variability. These differences were associated with internodal developmental stages.


crucial stages of ontogenesis variability Rana arvalis 


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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biological FacultyMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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