Biology Bulletin

, Volume 39, Issue 8, pp 692–707 | Cite as

Some specific morphological and ecological features of the fossil woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis Blumenbach 1799)

Article

Abstract

The results of anatomical and morphological studies of new corpse remains of the fossil woolly rhinoceros found in 2007 in the lower reaches of the Kolyma River are described. These new data provide additional details of the specific features of the structures and sizes of individual body parts of the fossil rhinoceros and allow for several inferences on the specific adaptations of this species to the cold climate of the Ice Age. Palynological data for the stomach contents of the woolly rhinoceroses that lived during the Karginian interglacial period of the Late Pleistocene are given. It is been shown that herbs (cereals and forbs) account for the major part of the woolly rhinoceros diet.

Keywords

woolly rhinoceros Late Pleistocene anatomy morphology ecology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Besesek, M., Radu, V.A., and Lascu, V., Discovery of a New Decorated Palaeolitihic Cave (Pestera Coliboaia) in Romania, Bihor Department, Int. Newsl. Rock Art, 2010, vol. 57, pp. 8–11.Google Scholar
  2. Boeskorov, G.G., Woolly Rhino (Coelodonta antiquitatis) Distribution in Northeast Asia, Deinsea, 2001, no. 8, pp. 15–20.Google Scholar
  3. Boeskorov, G.G. and Isakova, L.F., Collections of Quaternary Mammals in the Irkutsk Regional Museum of Local Lore, Kraeved. Zapiski, 1999, no. 6, pp. 14–28.Google Scholar
  4. Boeskorov, G.G., Lazarev, P.A., Bakulina, N.T., Shchelchkova, M.V., Davydov, S.P., and Solomonov, N.G., Preliminary Study of a Mummified Woolly Rhinoceros from the Lower Reaches of the Kolyma River, Doklady Biol. Sci., 2009, vol. 424, pp. 53–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boeskorov, G.G., Bakulina, N.T., Davydov, S.P., Shchelchkova, M.V., and Solomonov, N.G., Study of Pollen and Spores from the Stomach of a Fossil Woolly Rhinoceros Found in the Lower Reaches of the Kolyma River, Doklady Biol Sci., 2011, vol. 436, pp. 23–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borsuk-Byalynicka, M., Studies on the Pleistocene Rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach), Palaentol. Polon., 1973, no. 29, pp. 4–97.Google Scholar
  7. Brandt, J.F., De rhinocerotis antiquitatis seu tichorhini seu pallasii structura externa et osteologica observationes e reliquiis quae in museis Petropolitanis servantur erutae, Mem. Acad. Imper. Sci. St. Petersbourg, 1849, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 161–416.Google Scholar
  8. Chauvet, J.-M., Brunel-Deschamps, E., and Hillaire, C., La Grotte Chauvet a Vallon-Pont-d’Arc, Paris: Arts Rupestres, 1995.Google Scholar
  9. Chernova, O.F., Sher, A.V., and Garutt, N.V., Morphology of the Horns of Woolly Rhinoceroses (Coelodonta antiquitatis), Zool. Zh., 1998, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 66–79.Google Scholar
  10. Cherskii, I.D., Description of the Head of Siberian Rhinoceros Found in the Verkhoyansk Region in 1877, Izv. Vost.-Sib. Otd. Imp. Russ. Geogr. Ob-va, 1879, vol. 10, nos. 1–2, pp. 36–59.Google Scholar
  11. Davydov, S.P., Boeskorov, G.G., Sher, A.V., Bakulina, N.T., Davydova, A.I., and Shchelchkova, M.V., Mammoth Fauna Burial Places of the North-East Kolyma Lowland Submontane Zone, Proc. Int. Conf. “Environment Development of East Asia in Pleistocene-Holocene: Boundaries, Factors, Stages of Human Mastering,” Vladivostok, 2009, pp. 81–84.Google Scholar
  12. Formozov, A.N., Snow Cover As an Ebvironmental Factor: Significance for the Life of Mammals and Birds in the Soviet Union, in Materialy k poznaniyu fauny i flory SSSR (Materials on the Study of the Fauna and Flora of the Soviet Union), Moscow: Mosk. Ob-vo Ispyt. Prir., 1946.Google Scholar
  13. Fortelius, M., The Morphological and Paleobiological Significance of the Horns of Coelodonta antiquitatis (Mammalia: Rhinocerotidae), J. Vertebr. Paleontol., 1983, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 125–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garutt, N.W., Neue Angaben uber die Horner des Haarnashorns Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799), Deinsea, 1998, no. 4, pp. 25–39.Google Scholar
  15. Garutt, N.W., On the History of Studies on the Woolly Rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799), in Mamont i ego okruzhenie: 200 let izucheniya (The Mammoth and Its Environment: 200 Years of Study), Moscow: GEOS, 2001, pp. 23–33.Google Scholar
  16. Garutt, N.W. and Boeskorov, G.G., The Woolly Rhinoceroses: On the History of the Genus, in Mamont i ego okruzhenie: 200 let izucheniya (The Mammoth and Its Environment: 200 Years of Study), Moscow: GEOS, 2001, pp. 157–167.Google Scholar
  17. Garutt, W.E., Das Mammut Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach), Stuttgart: Cosmos Verlag, 1964.Google Scholar
  18. Garutt, W.E., Metel’tseva, E.P., and Tikhomirov, B.A., New Data on the Feeding of the Wooly Rhinoceros, in Severnyi Ledovityi okean i ego poberezh’e v kainozoe (The Arctic Ocean and Its Coast in the Cenosoic), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1970, pp. 113–125.Google Scholar
  19. Groves, C.P., Asian Rhinoceroses: Down but not out, Malayan Naturalist, 1982, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 11–22.Google Scholar
  20. Groves, C.P. and Kurt, F., Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, Mamm. Species, 1972, no. 21, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  21. Heller, E., The White Rhinoceros, Smithson. Misc. Coll., 1913, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 1–56.Google Scholar
  22. Karavaev, M.N. and Skryabin, S.Z., Rastitel’nyi mir Yakutii (The Flora of Yakutia), Yakutsk, 1971.Google Scholar
  23. Kubiak, H., Uber die Bedeutung der Kadaver des Wollhaarnashorns von Starunia, Ber. Deutsch. Ges. Geol. Wiss. A: Geol. Palaontol., 1969, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 345–347.Google Scholar
  24. Kuz’mina, I.E., On the Origin and History of Siberian Arctic Fauna, in Fauna i flora antropogena Severo-Vostoka Sibiri (The Fauna and Flora of the Anthropogene in Northeastern Siberia), Leningrad: Nauka, 1977, pp. 18–53.Google Scholar
  25. Laurie, W.A., Lang, E.M., and Groves, C.P., Rhinoceros unicornis, Mamm. Species, 1984, no. 211, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  26. Lazarev, P.A. and Tirskaya, N.F., On the Remains of the Woolly Rhinoceros in the Village of Churapcha (Central Yakutia) and on Palynological Spectra in Surrounding Deposits, in Palinologicheskie materialy k stratigrafii osadochnykh otlozhenii Yakutii (Palynological Materials on the Stratigraphy of Sedimentary Deposits in Yakutia), Yakutsk: Yakut. Fil. Sib. Otd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1975, pp. 66–72.Google Scholar
  27. Lazarev, P.A., Boeskorov, G.G., Tomskaya, A.I., Garutt, N.V., Vasil’ev, E.M., and Kasparov, A.K., Mlekopitayushchie antropogena Yakutii (Mammals of the Anthropogene in Yakutia), Yakutsk: Yakut. Nauch. Tsentr Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1998.Google Scholar
  28. Leroi-Gourhan, A., Grotte de Lascaux, in L’Art des cavernes: Atlas des grottes ornées paléolithiques francaises, Paris: Ministére de la Culture, 1984, pp. 180–200.Google Scholar
  29. Nasimovich, A.A., Rol’ rezhima snezhnogo pokrova v zhizni kopytnykh zhivotnykh na territorii SSSR (The Role of Snow Cover Regime in the Life of Ungulates in the Soviet Union), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1955.Google Scholar
  30. Niezabitowski, E., Bayger, J., Hoyer, H., Kjernik, E., et al., Wykopaliska Starunskie slon mamut (Elephas primigenius Blum.) nosorozec wlochaty (Rhinoceros antiquitatis Blum., Rh. tichorhinus Fisch.) wraz wsplczesna Flora u Fauna. Krakow Nakladem Museum im. Dzieduszyckich, Krakow: Czeionkami drukarni W.L. Anczyca. 1914.Google Scholar
  31. Nowak, J., Panow, E., Tokarski, J., Szafer, W., and Stach, J., The Second Woolly Rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis Blum.) from Starunia, Poland, Bull. Int. Acad. Pol. Sci. Lettres, Sci. Math. et Nat. Ser. B, Suppl., 1930.Google Scholar
  32. Pigeaud, R., Rodet, J., Deviése, Th., Dufayet, Cl., Trelohan-Chauve, E., Betton, J.-P., and Bonic, P., Palaeolithic Cave Art in West France: An Exceptional Discovery, the Margot Cave (Mayenne), Antiquity, 2006, vol. 80, no. 309. http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/pigeaud/index.html
  33. Schrenck, L., Der erste Fund einer Leiche von Rhinoceros merckii Jaeger, Mem. Acad. Imper. Sci. St. Petersbourg, 1880, vol. 27, pp. 1–55.Google Scholar
  34. Sher, A.V., Mlekopitayushchie i stratigrafiya pleistotsena Krainego Severo-Vostoka SSSR i Severnoi Ameriki (Mammals and Pleistocene Stratigraphy of the Far North of the Soviet Union and North America), Moscow: Nauka, 1971.Google Scholar
  35. Sher, A.V., Natural Restructuring in the Eastern Siberian Arctic at the Pleistocene-Holocene Boundary and Its Role in the Extinction of Mammals and the Establishment of Recent Ecosystems: Communication 1, Kriosfera Zemli, 1997, no. 1, pp. 21–29.Google Scholar
  36. Velichko, A.A., Prirodnyi protsess v pleistotsene (The Natural Process in the Pleistocene), Moscow: Nauka, 1973.Google Scholar
  37. Velichko, A.A. and Zelikson, E.M., Landscape-Climatic Conditions and Resource Basis of the Existence of Mammoth, in Mamont i ego okruzhenie: 200 let izucheniya (The Mammoth and Its Environment: 200 Years of Study), Moscow: GEOS, 2001, pp. 188–199.Google Scholar
  38. Vereshchagin, N.K., Taphonomic Notes, in Fauna i flora antropogena Severo-Vostoka Sibiri (The Fauna and Flora of the Anthropogene in Northeastern Siberia), Leningrad: Nauka, 1977, pp. 79–84.Google Scholar
  39. Vereshchagin, N.K. and Tikhonov, A.N., Ekster’er mamonta (The Exterior of the Mammoth), Yakutsk: Sib. Otd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1990.Google Scholar
  40. Walker, E.R., Warnick, F., Lange, K.I., Uible, H.E., Hamlet, S.E., Davies, M.A., and Wright, P.F., Mammals of the World, Baltimore: John Hopkins, 1964.Google Scholar
  41. Yudichev, Yu.F., Efimov, S.I., and Khonin, G.A., Anatomiya domashnikh zhivotnykh (Anatomy of Domestic Animals), Omsk: OmGAU, 2003, vol. 1, pp. 278–281.Google Scholar
  42. Yukagirskii mamont (The Yukagir Mammoth), St. Petersburg: S.-Peterb. Gos. Univ., 2007.Google Scholar
  43. Zukowsky, I., PatDie Systematik der Gattung Diceros Gray, 1821, Zool. Garten Neue Folge, 1965, vol. 30, pp. 1–178.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Diamond and Precious Metal Geology, Siberian BranchRussian Academy of SciencesYakutskRussia

Personalised recommendations