Biology Bulletin

, Volume 37, Issue 9, pp 952–958 | Cite as

The role of a social factor in exploration of a novel environment in great tits (Parus major) under conditions of limited space

  • T. A. Ilyina
  • E. V. Ivankina
  • A. B. Kerimov


Sequential tests in an open field (OF) and in an aviary were performed to study the exploration behavior of great tits, Parus major Each aviary of 2×2×2 m included a standard set of objects: trees, feeder, and shelters. Twenty-four aviaries included a single individual, and 49 aviaries included two heterosexual individuals. During the 15-min observation, a number of explored objects, the latent exploration period of each object (the time period from the start of observation to the first visit of each object), and the time period to the onset of feeding were recorded. The exploration rate of each individual was characterized by the sum of all latent periods (CLP). No association between the cumulative locomotor activities in OF and in an aviary was found. Probably, in the complex environment of an aviary, the frequency of directed actions increases, competing with the movement activity. Faster individuals in OF showed a shorter CLP; i.e., they were fast explorers. The exploration rate of a novel environment in the presence of socid partner was unrelated to exploration scores in OF. Interrelations of birds combined in an aviary were dependent on combinations of personality characteristics identified in OF.


great tit Parus major personality type social interactions response to novelty 


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. A. Ilyina
    • 1
  • E. V. Ivankina
    • 1
  • A. B. Kerimov
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of BiologyMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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