Advertisement

Biology Bulletin

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 43–52 | Cite as

Evolutionary aspects of hair polymorphism

  • O. F. Chernova
Zoology

Abstract

Polymorphism of hair was considered in terms of their origin in mammalian evolution. Vibrissae significantly differ from hairs by the structure. Apparently, they originated from mechanoreceptors of Cotylosauria and developed only in the Theriodontia-Cynodontia-Panthotheria-Theria lineage (Metatheria, Eutheria). No vibrissa developed in the lineage of Theriodontia-Cynodontia-Prototheria (Multituberculata, Triconodonta, Monotremata), where mechanoreceptors or glandular structures of amphibian ancestors transformed into electro-and mechanoreceptors. Hairs originated in these lineages in parallel from keratin epidermis in correlation with the establishment of homeothermy but independently of vibrissae. Wide and active adaptive radiation provided for a strong differentiation of hairs largely similar in different taxa. Spines originated by heterochrony of hair generations.

Keywords

Adaptive Radiation Mammalian Evolution Evolutionary Aspect Glandular Structure Strong Differentiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahl, A.S., The Role of Vibrissae in Behavior: A Status Review, Vet. Res. Commun., 1986, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 245–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arshavskii, I.A., The Biogenetic Low in the Context of Ontogenetic Periodicity, Zh. Obshch. Biol., 1955, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 458–479.Google Scholar
  3. Aspiz, M.E., Recovery of Hair and Skin Glands In Mammals, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1949, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1163–1166.Google Scholar
  4. Bocharov, Yu.S., Origin of Hairless Epidermis Regions in Human Extremities, in Tez. dokl. Vtorogo soveshch. embriologov SSSR (Proc. Second Conf. of USSR Embryologists), Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Univ., 1957, p. 23.Google Scholar
  5. Bocharov, Yu.S., Keratinization Mechanism and Problems of Phylogeny of Skin in Vertebrates, Tr. VI Vsesoyuzn. s’ezda anatomov, gistologov i embriologov (Proc. VI All-Russian Conf. of Anatomists, and Embryologists), 1961, vol. 1, pp. 402–403.Google Scholar
  6. Botezat, E., Die Nervendigungen an den Tasthaaren von Säugetieren, Arch. Mikr. Anat., 1897, vol. 50, pp. 142–169.Google Scholar
  7. Botezat, E., Über die Phylogenie der Säugetiere, Verhabdl. D. Gesellsch. Deutsch. Naturf. u. Aerzte, 1913, vol. 85, pp. 696–698.Google Scholar
  8. Botezat, E., Phylogenese des Haares der Säugetiere, Anat. Anz., 1914, vol. 47, nos. 1–2, pp. 1–44.Google Scholar
  9. Brandt, A., Zur Phylogenie der Säugetierhaare, Biol. Zentralb., 1900, vol. 20, pp. 572–592.Google Scholar
  10. Brink, A.S., Speculations on Some Advanced Mammalian Characteristics in the Higher Mammal-like Reptiles, Paleontol. Afr., 1956, vol. 4, pp. 77–96.Google Scholar
  11. Broili, F., Ein Rhamphorhynchus mit Spuren von Haarbedechung. Sitzungsber, Math.-Naturw. Abt. Bayerische Akad. Wiss. München, 1927, pp. 49–68.Google Scholar
  12. Broili, F., Haare bei Reptilien, Anat. Anz., 1941, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 62–68.Google Scholar
  13. Burres, C.L., Preserved Hair and Associated Keratinophilous Fungi from Late Pleistocene Scat, J. Vert. Paleont., 1995, vol. 15, no. 3, suppl. 1, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  14. Burres, C.L., Identification of Fossil Hair from the Late Pleistocene Coprolites with Discussion of Changes of Hair Morphology Due to Digestion, J. Vert. Paleont., 1996, vol. 16, no. 3, suppl. 1, p. 25Google Scholar
  15. Chapman, R.E., Hair, Wool, Quill, Nail, Claw, Hoof, and Horn, in Biology of the Integument. Ch. 17. The Skin of Mammals, Vertebrates, 1986, vol. 2, pp. 293–317.Google Scholar
  16. Chase, H.B. and Eaton, G.J., The Growth of Hair Follicles in Waves, Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 1959, vol. 83, pp. 365–368.Google Scholar
  17. Chernova, O.F., Glands of Integuments in the Evolution of Chordata (Morphofunctional Analysis), Extended Abstract of Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow: IEMEZh Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1996.Google Scholar
  18. Chernova, O.F., Architectonics of Spines in Some Rodents (Rodentia: Myomorpha, Hystricomorpha), Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2000, vol. 370, no. 3, pp. 425–430.Google Scholar
  19. Chernova, O.F., Architectonics of the Medulla of Guard Hair and Its Importance for Identification of Taxa, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 2001, vol. 376, no. 4, pp. 569–573.Google Scholar
  20. Chernova, O.F., Architectonic and Diagnostic Significance of Hair Cuticle, Izv. Akad. Nauk. Ser. Biol., 2002, no. 3, pp. 296–305.Google Scholar
  21. Chernova, O.F., Architectonic and Diagnostic Significance of Hair Cortex and Medulla, Izv. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Biol., 2003, no. 1, pp. 73–83.Google Scholar
  22. Chernova, O.F., A New Example of Morphological Convergence: Similar Architectonics of Father and Hair, Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2006 (in press).Google Scholar
  23. Chernova, O.F. and Kuznetsov, G.V., Specific Features of Spine Structure in Some Rodents (Rodentia: Myomorpha, Hystricomorpha), Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk. Ser. Biol., 2001, no. 4, pp. 442–454.Google Scholar
  24. Chernova, O.F. and Tselikova, T.N., Atlas volos mlekopitayushchikh (Tonkaya struktura ostevykh volos i igl v skaniruyushchem elektronnom mikroskope) (An Atlas of Mammalian Hair: Fine Structure of Spines and Hair Using Scanning Electron Microscopy), Moscow: Tovarishchestvo nauchn. izd. KMK, 2004.Google Scholar
  25. Chudinov, P.K., The Structure of Skin in Mammal-like Reptiles, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1968, vol. 179, no. 1, pp. 207–210.Google Scholar
  26. Chudinov, P.K., Skin of Terapsids, in Materialy po evolyutsii nazemnykh pozvonochnykh (Data on the Evolution of Land Vertebrates), Moscow: Nauka, 1970, pp. 45–50.Google Scholar
  27. Chuong, C.M., Chodankar, R., Wildelitz, R.B., and Jiang, T.X., Evo-Devo of Feathers and Scales: Building Complex Epithelial Appendages, Cur. Opinion Dev. Gen., 2000, vol. 10, pp. 449–456.Google Scholar
  28. Chuong, C.M., Hou, L., Chen, P.Y., Wu, P., Patel, N., and Chen, Y., Dinosaur’s Feather and Chicken’s Tooth? Tissue Engineering of the Integument, Eur. J. Dermatol., 2001, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 286–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cohen, J., Transplantation of Hair Papillae, Symp. Zool. Soc. London, 1964, vol. 12, pp. 83–96.Google Scholar
  30. Cohen, J., Dermis, Epidermis and Dermal Papilla Interaction, Advan. Biol. Skin, 1969, vol. 9, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  31. Cowles, R.B., Fur and Features: A Result of High Temperature?, Science, 1946, vol. 103, pp. 74–75.Google Scholar
  32. Cowles, R.B., Possible Origin of Dermal Temperature Regulation, Evolution, 1957, vol. 12, pp. 347–357.Google Scholar
  33. Crompton, A.W., The Enigma of the Evolution of Mammals, Optima, 1968, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 137–151.Google Scholar
  34. Danforth, C.H., Hair in Its Relation to Questions of Homology and Phylogeny, Amer. J. Anat., 1925, vol. 36, pp. 47–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dathe, H. and Schöps, P., Pelztieratlas, Jena: VEB Gustav Fisher Verlag, 1986.Google Scholar
  36. De Meijere, J.C.H, Haare, in Handb. Vergleich. Anat. der Wirbeltiere, Bolk, L., Göppert, E., Kallius, E., and Lubosch, W., Eds., Berlin: Urban und Schwarzenherg, 1931, pp. 585–632.Google Scholar
  37. Deryagina, M.A., Evolyutsionnaya antropologiya (Evolutionary Anthropology), Moscow: URAO, 1999.Google Scholar
  38. Dun, R.B., The Development and Growth of Vibrissae in the House Mouse with Particular Reference to the Time of Action of the Tabby (Ta) and Ragged (Ra) Genes, Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 1959, vol. 12, pp. 312–339.Google Scholar
  39. Ede, D.A., Hinchcliffe, J.R., and Mees, H.C., Feather Morphogenesis and Feather Pattern in Normal and Talpid Mutant Chick Embryos, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol., 1971, vol. 25, pp. 65–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ellias, H. and Bortner, S., On the Phylogeny of Hair, Amer. Mus. Novitates, 1957, no. 1820, pp. 1–15.Google Scholar
  41. Estes, F.R., Cranial Anatomy of the Cynodont Reptile Thrinaxodon liothinus, Bull. Museum Compar. Zool., 1961, vol. 125, pp. 165–180.Google Scholar
  42. Filatov, D.P., Developmental Mechanics as a Tool to Study Certain Evolutionary Problems, Zh. Obshch. Biol., 1943, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 28–61.Google Scholar
  43. Findlay, G.H., On the Scalasaurid Skull of Oliveieria Parringtoni, Brink with a Note on the Origin of Hair, Paleontol. Afr., 1968, vol. 11, pp. 47–59.Google Scholar
  44. Findlay, G.H., The Role of the Skin in the Origin of Mammals, S. Afr. J. Sci., 1970, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 277–283.Google Scholar
  45. Fouli, R., Eshche odin nepovtorimyi vid. Ekologicheskie aspekty evolyutsii cheloveka (One More Unique Species. Ecological Aspects of Human Evolution), Moscow: Mir, 1990.Google Scholar
  46. Fraser, R.D.B. and MacRae, T.P., Keratins, Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol., 1980, vol. 34, pp. 211–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Garn, S.M., Types and Distribution of the Hair in Man, Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 1951, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 498–507Google Scholar
  48. Haffner, M. and Ziswiler, V., Histologische Untersuchungen am Lateralen Integument des Igels, Erinaceus europaeus (Mammalia, Insectivora), Revue Suisse Zool., 1983, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 809–816.Google Scholar
  49. Hardy, M.H., The Development of Pelage Hairs and Vibrissae from Skin in Tissue Culture, Ann New York Acad. Sci., 1951, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 546–561.Google Scholar
  50. Harrington, L.P., The Role of Piliary System in Mammals and Its Relation To the Thermal Environment, Ann New York Acad. Sci., 1951, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 600–607.Google Scholar
  51. Hausman, L.A., Structural Characteristics of the Hair of Mammals, Am. Nat., 1920, vol. 54, no. 635, pp. 496–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hausman, L.A., A Comparative Racial Study of the Structural Elements of Human Head-Hair, Am. Nat., 1925, vol. 59, pp. 529–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hausman, L.A., Applied Microscopy of Hair, Sci. Monthly, 1944, vol. 59, pp. 195–202.Google Scholar
  54. Heller, W., Untersuchungen zur Sogenannten Hauterhaltung bei Ichthyosaurien aus dem Lias Epsilon Holzmaden (Schwaben), Neues Jb. Heol. Paleontol. Monatsh., 1966, vol. 5, pp. 304–317.Google Scholar
  55. Hrdy, D., Quantitative Hair Form Variation in Seven Populations, Amer. J. Physic. Anthropol., 1973, vol. 39, p. 7.Google Scholar
  56. Hrdy, D. and Baden, H.P., Biochemical Variation of Hair Keratins in Man and Non-Human Primates, Amer. J. Physic. Anthropol., 1973, vol. 39, p. 19.Google Scholar
  57. Hutchinson, P.E., Cairns, R.J., and Wells, R.S., Wooly Hairs, Trans. St. John’s Hospital Dermatol. Soc., 1974, vol. 60, p. 160.Google Scholar
  58. Ignat’eva, Z.P., Embryogenesis of Tactile Perception Organs (Vibrissae) in Precocial and Altricial Forms, Arkh. Anat., Gistol. Embriol., 1959, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 32–41.Google Scholar
  59. Jones, F.W., The External Characters of Pouch Embryos of Marsupials. No. 2. Notoryctes typhlops, Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 1921, vol. 45, pp. 36–39.Google Scholar
  60. Kanaizuka, Z., Beitrage zur Morphologie des Musculus arrector pili, Fol. Anat. Jap., 1926, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 141–169.Google Scholar
  61. Katsy, G.D., Hair of Mammals of Different Ecogenesis, Dokl. VASKhNIL, 1988, no. 4, pp. 43–45.Google Scholar
  62. Kholodkovskii, N.A., Uchebnik zoologii (Handbook of Zoology), St. Petersburg: Izd-vo A.F. Devriena, 1914.Google Scholar
  63. Klauer, G.J., Bachteler, D., Drees, E., and Hilken, G., Vibrissae—More Than Just Hairs!, J. Morphol., 2001, vol. 248, no. 3, pp. 248–249.Google Scholar
  64. Kokshaiskii, N.V., Hair Cover and the Problem of Mammalian Amphibiocity, Zool. Zh., 1998, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 4–9.Google Scholar
  65. Kratochvíl, J., Das Stachelkleid des Ostigels (Erinaceus concolor roumanicus), Acta Sci. Nat. Brno, 1974, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1–52.Google Scholar
  66. Kükenthal, W., Untersuchungen an Walen, Z. Naturwiss, 1909, vol. 45, pp. 545–588.Google Scholar
  67. Kulikov, V.F., Morphology and Functional Significance of the Vibrissa Apparatus in Some Rodents, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow: IEMEZh, 1979.Google Scholar
  68. L’vov, V., Comparative Study and Description of Mammalian Hair, Bristle, and Spine and Bird Feather, Uch. Zap. Mosk. Un-ta, 1884, no. 4, pp. 1–88.Google Scholar
  69. Leblond, C.P., Histological Structure of Hair, with a Brief Comparison to Other Epidermal Appendages and Epidermal Itself Ann New York Acad. Sci., 1951, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 464–475.Google Scholar
  70. Lyne, A.G., The Systematic and Adaptive Significance of the Vibrissae in the Marsupialia, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1959, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 79–133.Google Scholar
  71. Maderson, P.F.A., When? Why? And How? Some Speculations on the Evolution of the Vertebrate Integument, Am. Zool., 1972, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 159–171.Google Scholar
  72. Matveev, B.S., Evolution of Skin Covers in Vertebrates through Embryonic Changes, Zool. Zh., 1932, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 39–54.Google Scholar
  73. Matveev, B.S., On the Origin of Scale Cover and Hair in Mammals, Zool. Zh., 1949, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 59–70.Google Scholar
  74. Maurer, F., Haut-Sinnesorgane, Feder-und Haaranlagen, und deren Gegenseitige Beziehungen, Ein Beitrag zur Phylogenie der Säugetierhaare, Morphol. Jahrb., 1892, vol. 18, pp. 717–804.Google Scholar
  75. Meng, J. and Wyss, A.R., Multituberculate and Other Mammal Hair Recovered from Paleogene Excreta, Nature, 1997, vol. 385, no. 6618, pp. 712–714.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Michelsson, G., Die Hautmuskulatur des Igels (Erinaceus europaeus), Morphol. Jahrb., 1922, vol. 51, pp. 147–229.Google Scholar
  77. Montagna, W., The Structure and Function of Skin, New York: Academic, 1962.Google Scholar
  78. Montagna, W. and Parakkal, P.F., The Structure and Function of Skin, New York: Academic, 1974.Google Scholar
  79. Noback, Ch.R., Morphology and Phylogeny of Hair, Ann New York Acad. Sci., 1951, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 476–492.Google Scholar
  80. Palmer, E. and Weddell, G., The Relationship between Structure, Innervation and Function of the Skin of the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncates) Pt. 1, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1964, vol. 143, pp. 553–568.Google Scholar
  81. Pavlov, Yu. V., Structure of Hair on the Head and Other Parts of Body in Latin Americans, Sud.-Med. Ekspertiza, 2000a, no. 3, pp. 20–22.Google Scholar
  82. Pavlov, Yu.V., Morphology of Hairs on the Head and Other Parts of the Body in the Residents of Africa, Sud.-Med. Ekspertiza, 2000b, no. 6, pp. 18–21.Google Scholar
  83. Perkins, E.M. and Meyer, W.C., The Phylogenetic Significance of the Skin of Primates. Implications for the Origin of New World Monkeys, Evol. Biol. New World Monkeys and Contin. Drift. Proc. Symp. 7th Congr. Int. Primatol. Soc., Bangalore, Jan. 1979, New York, 1980, pp. 331–346.Google Scholar
  84. Pinkus, F., Ueber Hautsinnesorgane Neben dem Menschlichen Haar (Haarscheiben) und Ihre Vergleichend-Anatomische Bedeutung, Arch. mikr. Anat., 1905, vol. 65, pp. 121–179.Google Scholar
  85. Pocock, R.I., On the Facial Vibrissae of Mammalia, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1914, vol. 3, pp. 889–912.Google Scholar
  86. Poulton, E.B., The Structure of the Bill and Hairs of Ornithorinchus paradoxus; with a Discussion of the Homologies and Origin of Mammalian Hair, Quart. J. Micros. Sci., 1894, vol. 36, pp. 143–200.Google Scholar
  87. Quay, W., Integument and the Environment: Glandular Composition, Function, and Evolution, Am. Zool., 1972, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 95–108.Google Scholar
  88. Raphael, K.A., The Genetic Control of Hair Growth in Mice, Scientifur., 1987, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 265.Google Scholar
  89. Reshetov, Yu.G., Priroda Zemli i proiskhozhdenie cheloveka (Nature of the Earth and the Origin of Humans), Moscow: Mysl’, 1966.Google Scholar
  90. Roginskii, Ya.Ya., Novye teorii proiskhozhdeniya cheloveka (New Theories of Human Origin), Moscow: Pravda, 1948.Google Scholar
  91. Roginskii, Ya.Ya., Problemy antropogeneza (Problems of Anthropogenesis), Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1969.Google Scholar
  92. Roginskii, Ya.Ya., Problemy antropogeneza (Problems of Anthropogenesis), Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1977.Google Scholar
  93. Roginskii, Ya.Ya., Rejuvenation during Human Evolution, Antropol. Zh., 1933, no. 3, pp. 83–103.Google Scholar
  94. Rook, A., Racial and Other Genetic Variations in Hair Form, Br. J. Dermatol., 1975, vol. 92, pp. 599–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rougeot, J., Thebault, R.G., and Allain, D., Role of the Compound Hair Follicle in Adaptive Pelage Changes, Acta Zool. Fenn., 1984, no. 171, pp. 19–21.Google Scholar
  96. Schmidt, F., Ueber den Haarwechsel der Pelztiere, Pelzgewerbe, 1951, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  97. Schneider, F., Ueber die Untersuchung von Haaren mit dem Rasterelektronenmikroskop, Rechtsmed, 1972, vol. 71, pp. 94–103.Google Scholar
  98. Severtsov, A.N., Morfologicheskie zakonomernosti evolyutsii (Morphological Trends in Evolution), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1949, vol. 5.Google Scholar
  99. Shmal’gauzen, I.I., Osnovy sravnitel’noi anatomii (Basic Comparative Anatomy), Moscow: Sovetskaya Nauka, 1947.Google Scholar
  100. Shmal’gauzen, I.I., Problemy darvinizma (Problems of Darwinism), Leningrad: Nauka, 1969.Google Scholar
  101. Sokolov, V.E., Sistematika mlekopitayushchikh (Mammalian Systematics), Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1973.Google Scholar
  102. Sokolov, V.E., Sistematika mlekopitayushchikh (Mammalian Systematics), Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1977.Google Scholar
  103. Sokolov, V.E., Sistematika mlekopitayushchikh (Mammalian Systematics), Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1979.Google Scholar
  104. Sokolov, V.E. and Chernova, O.F., New Data on the Structure of Spines in Porcupines, Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1998, vol. 363, no. 3, pp. 429–432.Google Scholar
  105. Sokolov, V.E. and Chernova, O.F., Kozhnye zhelezy mlekopitayushchikh (Mammalian Skin Glands), Moscow: GEOS, 2001.Google Scholar
  106. Sokolov, V.E. and Petrishchev, B.I., Kozhnyi pokrov domashnikh mlekopitayushchikh (kopytnye) (Skin Cover of Domestic Mammals (Ungulates)), Moscow: IPEiE, 1997.Google Scholar
  107. Sokolov, V.E., Chernova, O.F., Stepanova, L.V., et al., Comparative Morphology of Skin in Manatee, in Lamantin. Morfologicheskie adaptatsii (The Manatee: Morphological Adaptations), Sokolov, V.E., Ed., Moscow: Nauka, 1986.Google Scholar
  108. Sokolov, V.E., Skurat, L.N., Stepanova, L.V., et al., Rukovodstvo po izucheniyu kozhnogo pokrova mlekopitayushchikh (A Manual for Studying Skin Cover in Mammals), Moscow: Nauka, 1988.Google Scholar
  109. Spencer, B. and Sweet, G.F., The Structure and Development of the Hairs of Monotremes and Marsupials. Part. 1. Monotremes, Quart. J. Microsc. Sci., 1899, vol. 41, pp. 549–588.Google Scholar
  110. Sprenger, H., Stacheln von Erinaceus europaeus, Zool. Jahrb. Abt. f. Anat., 1989, vol. 11, no 2, pp. 97–152.Google Scholar
  111. Štěrba, O., Das Haarkleid des Ostigels, Erinaceus concolor roumanicus, Zool. Listy, 1975, vol. 24, pp. 125–135.Google Scholar
  112. Štěrba, O., Zur Entstehung der Stacheln bei der Gattung Erinaceus (Mammalia, Insectivora), Zool. Listy, 1976, vol. 25, pp. 33–38.Google Scholar
  113. Stöhr, Ph., Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschlichen Wollhaares, Anat. Hefte, 1903, vol. 23, pp. 1–66.Google Scholar
  114. Straile, W.E., Sensory Hair Follicles in Mammalian Skin: The Tylotrich Follicle, Amer. J. Anat., 1960, vol. 106, pp. 133–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tatarinov, L.P., Formation of Mammalian Characters in Theriodonts, Paleontol. Zh., 1965, no. 1, pp. 101–115.Google Scholar
  116. Tatarinov, L.P., Development of the System of Labial (Vibrissal) Vessels and Nerves in Theriodonts, Paleontol. Zh., 1967, no. 1, pp. 3–17.Google Scholar
  117. Tatarinov, L.P., Problems of Theriodont Evolution, Extended Abstract of Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow: Paleontol. in-t Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1969.Google Scholar
  118. Tatarinov, L.P., Certain Problems of Phylogenetic Studies on Lower Tertapods, in Materialy po evolyutsii nazemnykh pozvonochnykh (Data on the Evolution of Land Vertebrates), Moscow: Nauka, 1970, pp. 8–29.Google Scholar
  119. Tatarinov, L.P., Teriodonty SSSR (Theriodonts of the USSR), Moscow: Nauka, 1974.Google Scholar
  120. Tatarinov, L.P., Morfologicheskaya evolyutsiya teriodontov i obshchie voprosy filogenetiki (Morphological Evolution of Theriodonts and General Problems of Phylogeny), Moscow: Nauka, 1976.Google Scholar
  121. Toldt, K., Aufbau und Natürliche Färbung des Haarkleides der Wildsäugetiere, Leipzig: Verlag, 1935.Google Scholar
  122. Turner, J.S. and Schroter, R.C., Why Are Small Homeotherms Born Naked? Insulation and the Critical Radius Concept, J. Therm. Biol., 1986, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 223–238.Google Scholar
  123. Vsevolodov, E.B., Volosyanye follikuly (Hair Follicles), Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1979.Google Scholar
  124. Watson, D.M.S., On the Skeleton of a Bauriomorph Reptile, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1931, pp. 1163–1205.Google Scholar
  125. Wheeler, P.E., The Evolution of Bipedality and Loss of Functional Body Hair in Hominids, J. Human Evol., 1984, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 91–98.Google Scholar
  126. Yablokov, A.V., The Problem of Rudimentary Organs (by the Example of Marine Mammals), Zool. Zh., 1963, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 441–450.Google Scholar
  127. Yohro, T., Structure of Sinus Hair Follicle in the Big-Clawed Shrew, Sorex unguiculatus, J. Morphol., 1977, vol. 153, pp. 333–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Zavarzin, A.A., Trudy po teorii parallelizma i evolyutsionnoi dinamike tkanei (k 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya) (Works on the Theory of Parallelism and Evolutionary Dynamics of Tissues (100th Anniversary)), Leningrad: Nauka, 1986.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. F. Chernova
    • 1
  1. 1.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and EvolutionRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations