Microwave and ultrasonic extraction of chlorophenoxy acids from soil and their determination by fluorescence polarization immunoassay
Procedures were developed for the ultrasonic and microwave extraction of pesticides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlophenoxyacetic (2,4,5-T) acids from soils for the subsequent determination by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The effect of the matrix composition of soils on the FPIA results was studied, and the optimum extractants and extraction conditions were selected. It was found that 40% ethanol is optimum for both extraction and FPIA determination, because it does not cause antibody denaturation. The recovery of pesticides in soil was 80–132% for 2,4-D and 101–138% for 2,4,5-T. Microwave extraction is more efficient than ultrasonic extraction for the determination of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T in soil. The detection limit in soil and the analytical range are 2 and 4–200 μg/g, respectively, for 2,4-D and 20 and 80–5000 μg/g, respectively, for 2,4,5-T. Results of the determination of 2,4-D in soil by FPIA are in good agreement with the results of the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. The procedures can be used for the rapid determination of chlorophenoxy acids in soils.
KeywordsMatrix Effect Calibration Plot Garden Soil Ethanol Mixture Ultrasonic Extraction
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