Journal of Analytical Chemistry

, Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 127–134 | Cite as

Microwave and ultrasonic extraction of chlorophenoxy acids from soil and their determination by fluorescence polarization immunoassay

  • V. S. Morozova
  • S. A. Eremin
  • P. N. Nesterenko
  • N. A. Klyuev
  • A. A. Shelepchikov
  • I. V. Kubrakova


Procedures were developed for the ultrasonic and microwave extraction of pesticides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlophenoxyacetic (2,4,5-T) acids from soils for the subsequent determination by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The effect of the matrix composition of soils on the FPIA results was studied, and the optimum extractants and extraction conditions were selected. It was found that 40% ethanol is optimum for both extraction and FPIA determination, because it does not cause antibody denaturation. The recovery of pesticides in soil was 80–132% for 2,4-D and 101–138% for 2,4,5-T. Microwave extraction is more efficient than ultrasonic extraction for the determination of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T in soil. The detection limit in soil and the analytical range are 2 and 4–200 μg/g, respectively, for 2,4-D and 20 and 80–5000 μg/g, respectively, for 2,4,5-T. Results of the determination of 2,4-D in soil by FPIA are in good agreement with the results of the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. The procedures can be used for the rapid determination of chlorophenoxy acids in soils.


Matrix Effect Calibration Plot Garden Soil Ethanol Mixture Ultrasonic Extraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Morozova, V.S., Levashova, A.I., and Eremin, S.A., Zh. Anal. Khim., 2005, vol. 60, no. 3, p. 230 [J. Anal. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 60, no. 3, p. 202].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eremin, S.A. and Smith, D.S., Comb. Chem. High T. SCR, 2003, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 257.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krikunova, V.S., Eremin, S.A., Smith, D.S., and Landon, J., Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 2003, vol. 83, nos. 7–8, p. 585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buldini, P.L., Loretta, R., and Jawahar, L.S., J. Chromatogr., A, 2002, vol. 975, no. 1, p. 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Macutkiewicz, E., Rompa, M., and Zygmunt, B., CRC Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem., 2003, vol. 33, no. 1, p. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lagana, A., Fago, G., Marino, A., and Penazzi, V.M., Anal. Chim. Acta, 2000, vol. 415, nos. 1–2, p. 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barriada-Pereira, M., Concha-Grana, E., Gonzalez-Castro, M.J., Muniategui-Lorenzo, S., Lopez-Mahia, P., Prada-Rodriguez, D., and Fernandez-Fernandez, E., J. Chromatogr., A, 2003, vol. 1008, no. 1, p. 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Luque-Garcia, J.L., Luque De Castro M.D., Talanta, 2004, vol. 64, no. 3, p. 571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hogendoorn, E.A., Huls, R., Dijkman, E., and Hoogerbrugge, R., J. Chromatogr., A, 2001, vol. 938, no. 1, p. 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sun, L. and Lee, H.K., J. Chromatogr., A, 2003, vol. 1014, nos. 1–2, p. 165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Priego-Capote, F., Luque De Castro M.D., Trends Anal. Chem., 2004, vol. 23, no. 9, p. 644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Castro, J., Sánchez-Brunete, C., and Tadeo, J.L., J. Chromatogr., A, 2001, vol. 918, no. 2, p. 371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Priego-López, E., Luque De Castro M.D., J. Chromatogr., A, 2003, vol. 1018, no. 1, p. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    De Amarante, O.P., Brito, N.M., Santos, T.C.R., Nunes, G.S., and Ribeiro, M.L., Talanta, 2003, vol. 60, no. 1, p. 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khodadoust, A.P., Suidan, M.T., Acheson, C.M., and Brenner, R.C., Chemoshpere, 1999, vol. 18, no. 11, p. 2681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rosales-Conrado, N., León-González, M.E., Pérez-Arribas, L.V., and Polo-Dyez, L.M., Anal. Chim. Acta, 2002, vol. 470, no. 2, p. 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Camel, V., Trends Anal. Chem., 2000, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eskilsson, C.S. and Bjorklund, E., J. Chromatogr., A, 2000, vol. 902, no. 2, p. 227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kubrakova, I.V., Usp. Khim., 2002, vol. 71, no. 4, p. 327.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gfrerer, M. and Lankmayr, E., Anal. Chim. Acta, 2005, vol. 533, no. 2, p. 203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ganeshjeevan, R., Chandrasekar, R., Sugumar, P., Kadigachalam, P., and Radhakrishnan, G., J. Chromatogr., A, 2005, vol. 1069, no. 2, p. 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bartolome, L., Cortazar, E., Raposo, J.C., Usobiaga, A., Zuloaga, O., Etxebarria, N., and Fernandez, L.A., J. Chromatogr., A, 2005, vol. 1068, no. 2, p. 229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu, R., Zhou, J.L., and Wilding, A., J. Chromatogr., A, 2004, vol. 1038, nos. 1–2, p. 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Concha-Graña, E., Barriada-Pereira, M., Turnes-Carou, M.I., Muniategui-Lorenzo, S., López-Mahia, P., and Prada Rodriguez, D., Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2003, vol. 375, no. 8, p. 1225.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vryzas, Z. and Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, vol. 50, no. 18, p. 5026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Patsias, J., Papadakis, E.N., and Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E., J. Chromatogr., A, 2002, vol. 959, nos. 1–2, p. 153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xiong, G., Liang, J., Zou, S., and Zhang, Z., Anal. Chim. Acta, 1998, vol. 371, no. 1, p. 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. S. Morozova
    • 1
  • S. A. Eremin
    • 1
  • P. N. Nesterenko
    • 1
  • N. A. Klyuev
    • 2
  • A. A. Shelepchikov
    • 2
  • I. V. Kubrakova
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMoscow State UniversityVorob’evy gory, MoscowRussia
  2. 2.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution ProblemsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical ChemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations