Geological–Geophysical Model of the Nizhne-Koshelevskoe Vapor-Dominated Geothermal Deposit, the Largest in Kamchatka
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Fundamentally new data on the structure of the Nizhne-Koshelevskoe vapor-dominated geothermal deposit (South Kamchatka) were obtained. An isometric area of intensely argillized rocks saturated with a vapor–gas mixture with the shape of an irregular cup occurring up to a depth of 250–300 m was distinguished in the central part of the deposit beneath the major zone of hydrotherm discharge. This area is controlled by a heat source through a subvertical channel of increased fracture–porous permeability for a vapor–gas fluid with a thickness of 300–350 m and a depth of >5 km. The elements of the paleohydrothermal system, such as relatively rock blocks composed of propylite and secondary quartzite with epithermal ore mineralization, were distinguished at the core of the deposit. The heat was transferred by the crustal flux of reduced hydrocarbon fluid.
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