The Characteristics of Primary Hybrids Obtained in Crosses between Common Wheat from China and Cultivated Rye
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The gene pool of winter common wheat from China maintained in the VIR collection is unique in the variety of alleles of the genes of selection-valuable traits and properties. Our previous studies have revealed among this wheat the samples that cross well with sowing rye, but in most cases, they had poor winter hardiness. Wheat-rye hybrids were produced in order to involve this material in Russian breeding. A directional selection for winter hardiness and high productivity in several subsequent generations of self-pollinated hybrids was performed. Evaluation of the F1 hybrids in the autumn–winter seeding in the climatic conditions of the Northwest region of the Russian Federation (Pushkin) revealed their differences in viability, winter hardiness, and formation of F2 hybrid caryopses. The subsequent directional individual selection for high overwintering and productivity in F2–F7 hybrid self-pollinated populations led to the production of primary hexaploid wheat-rye lines (2n = 6x = 42, BBAARR). Characteristics of 17 lines are given in the article. The statistically significant heterogeneity of the lines according to the studied traits is shown using the Kruskal–Wallis rank criterion (H). We revealed the elimination of the D genome chromosomes and the presence of the complete genomes B, A, and R in all lines using the method of genomic in situ hybridization. Along with hexaploid plants, forms containing additionally from one to five chromosomes of the D genome were found in one line. The produced primary winter-hardy and highly productive hexaploid wheat-rye lines are a new initial material for wheat and triticale breeding.
Keywords:the VIR wheat collection Triticum aestivum/Secale cereale hybrids spike fertility winter hardiness GISH genome identification
This work was carried out as part of the state assignment in accordance with the thematic plan of VIR on the topic no. 0662-2019-0006 “Search for, Maintaining Viability, and Revealing the Potential of Hereditary Variability of the VIR World Collection of Grain and Cereal Crops for the Development of an Optimized Genebank and Rational Use in Selection and Plant Growing,” state registration number EGISU NIOKR AAAA-A16-116040710373-1, as well as on the basis of a unique scientific installation VIR Collection of Plant Genetic Resources.
COMPLIANCE WITH ETHICAL STANDARDS
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies involving animals or human participants performed by any of the authors.
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