Russian Journal of Genetics

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 98–109

Allele frequency distributions of -174G/C polymorphism in regulatory region of interleukin 6 gene (IL6) in Russian and worldwide populations

  • S. A. Borinskaya
  • A. S. Gureev
  • A. A. Orlova
  • E. D. Sanina
  • A. A. Kim
  • F. Gasemianrodsari
  • V. I. Shirmanov
  • O. P. Balanovsky
  • D. V. Rebrikov
  • A. V. Koshechkin
  • N. K. Yankovsky


Allele and genotype frequencies of the −174G/C polymorphism (rs1800795) in the regulatory region of the IL6 gene, which encode anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6, were determined in seven populations representing five ethnic groups from the European part of Russia (440 individuals), as well as in small cohorts that represent populations from 24 countries of Africa and Eurasia (365 individuals). The maps of the geographic distribution of the −174G/C allele frequencies were constructed based on personal (22 populations) and the literature data (66 populations), and the data from dbSNP database obtained by the HapMap project (10 populations). The frequency of the −174G allele varied from 45 to 100% and was characterized by nonrandom geographic distribution. These data could reflect the adaptive load of the alleles examined, which was different in different regions of the world. It is suggested that the level of pathogen prevalence is one of the environmental factors that determine different adaptive values of the IL6*-174G/C alleles. This suggestion is supported by a positive correlation between the −174G allele frequency and level of pathogen prevalence calculated based on historical data (R = 0.768; p < 0.0001).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cole, S.W., Arevalo, J.M., Takahashi, R., et al., Computational Identification of Gene-Social Environment Interaction at the Human IL6 Locus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2010, vol. 107, no. 12, pp. 5681–5686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Terry, C.F., Loukaci, V., and Green, F.R., Cooperative Influence of Genetic Polymorphisms on Interleukin 6 Transcriptional Regulation, J. Biol. Chem., 2000, vol. 275, no. 24, pp. 18138–18144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Capurso, C., Solfrizzi, V., D’Introno, A., et al., Interleukin 6-174G/C Promoter Gene Polymorphism and Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease: Geographic Allele and Genotype Variations in Europe, Exp. Gerontol., 2004, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1567–1573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lan, Q., Shen, M., Garcia-Rossi, D., et al., Genotype Frequency and Fst Analysis of Polymorphisms in Immunoregulatory Genes in Chinese and Caucasian Populations, Immunogenetics, 2007, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 839–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Xu, B., Niu, X.B., Wang, Z.D., et al., IL-6-174GC Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis Involving 29.377 Cases and 37.739 Controls, Mol. Biol. Rep., 2011, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 2589–2596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Han, X.M., Wang, C.H., Sima, X., et al., Interleukin-6-174G/C Polymorphism and the Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis, Neurosci. Lett., 2011, vol. 504, no. 1, pp. 4–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Meenagh, A., Williams, F., Ross, O.A., et al., Frequency of Cytokine Polymorphisms in Populations from Western Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America, Hum. Immunol., 2002, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 1055–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Semenova, N.A., Ryazantseva, N.V., Novitskii, V.V., et al., Role of IL6 -174C/G Gene Polymorphism in Development of Chronic HCV Infection, Byull. Sib. Med., 2010, no. 5.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Safonova, A.V., Petrin, A.N., Arutyunov, S.D., et al., Association of Cytokine Gene Alleles with the Inflammation of Human Periodontal Tissue Acta Nat., 2011, vol. 3, no. 1(8), pp. 133–139.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Soroka, N.E., Morozova, S.A., Ilinsky, V.V., et al., Association between Alleles of Cytokine Genes with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Russian Population, J. Clin. Cell Immunol., 2010, vol. 1, p. 102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Timasheva, Y.R., Nasibullin, T.R., Zakirova, A.N., et al., Association of Interleukin-6, Interleukin-12, and Interleukin-10 Gene Polymorphisms with Essential Hypertension in Tatars from Russia, Biochem. Genet., 2008, vol. 46, nos. 1–2, pp. 64–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ageeva, E.S., Shtygasheva, O.V., and Ryazantseva, N.V., Association between Interleukin-8 Gene-251 Locus Polymorphism with Peptic Ulcer Disease in Khakases, Immunologiya, 2010, no. 3, p. 131.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., and Maniatis, T., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Lab. Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roff, D.A. and Bentzen, P., The Statistical Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphisms: Chi 2 and the Problem of Small Samples, Mol. Biol. Evol., 1989, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 539–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gonzalez-Galarza, F.F., Christmas, S., Middleton, D., et al., Allele Frequency Net: A Database and Online Repository for Immune Gene Frequencies in Worldwide Populations, Nucleic Acids Res., 2011, vol. 39, pp. D913–D919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ghazouani, L., Ben Hadj Khalifa, S., Abboud, N., et al., TNF-Alpha-308G>A and IL-6-174G>C Polymorphisms in Tunisian Patients with Coronary Artery Disease, Clin. Biochem., 2010, vol. 43, nos. 13–14, pp. 1085–1089.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Settin, A., Hassan, H., El-Baz, R., et al., Association of Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms with Psoriasis in Cases from the Nile Delta of Egypt, Acta Dermatovenerol. Alp. Panonica Adriat., 2009, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 105–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ahrens, P., Kattner, E., Kohler, B., et al., Mutations of Genes Involved in the Innate Immune System as Predictors of Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants, Pediatr. Res., 2004, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 652–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hartel, C., Finas, D., Ahrens, P., et al., Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Innate Immunity: Association with Preterm Delivery, Mol. Hum. Reprod., 2004, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 911–915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murray, D.R. and Schaller, M., Historical Prevalence of Infectious Diseases within 230 Geopolitical Regions: A Tool for Investigating Origins of Culture, J. Cross-Cult. Psychol., 2010, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arman, A., Coker, A., Sarioz, O., et al., Lack of Association between IL-6 Gene Polymorphisms and Rheumatoid Arthritis in Turkish Population, Rheumatol. Int., 2011, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 2199–2201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saruhan-Direskeneli, G., Bicakcigil, M., Yilmaz, V., et al., Interleukin (IL)-12, IL-2, and IL-6 Gene Polymorphisms in Takayasu’s Arteritis from Turkey, Hum. Immunol., 2006, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 735–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barkhordari, E., Rezaei, N., Ansaripour, B., et al., Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome, J. Clin. Immunol., 2010, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 74–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shahbazi, M., Ebadi, H., Fathi, D., et al., HLA-DRB1*1501 Intensifies the Impact of IL-6 Promoter Polymorphism on the Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis in an Iranian Population, Mult. Scler., 2010, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1173–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Godarzi, E.M., Sarvestani, E.K., Aflaki, E., et al., Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphism in Iranian Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Clin. Rheumatol., 2011, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 179–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Greisenegger, S., Endler, G., Haering, D., et al., The (−174)G/C Polymorphism in the Interleukin-6 Gene Is Associated with the Severity of Acute Cerebrovascular Events, Thromb. Res., 2003, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 181–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brett, P.M., Zygogianni, P., Griffiths, G.S., et al., Functional Gene Polymorphisms in Aggressive and Chronic Periodontitis, J. Dent. Res., 2005, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 1149–1153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fishman, D., Faulds, G., Jeffery, R., et al., The Effect of Novel Polymorphisms in the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Gene on IL-6 Transcription and Plasma IL-6 Levels, and an Association with Systemic-Onset Juvenile Chronic Arthritis, J. Clin. Invest., 1998, vol. 102, no. 7, pp. 1369–1376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nibali, L., D’Aiuto, F., Donos, N., et al., Association between Periodontitis and Common Variants in the Promoter of the Interleukin-6 Gene, Cytokine, 2009, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 50–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mihailova, S., Ivanova, M., Mihaylova, A., et al., Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Polymorphism Profiles in Bulgarian Multiple Sclerosis Patients, J. Neuroimmunol., 2005, vol. 168, nos. 1–2, pp. 138–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kiszel, P., Fust, G., Pessi, T., et al., Associations between Interleukin-6 Genetic Polymorphisms and Levels of Autoantibodies to 60-kDa Heat-Shock Proteins, Hum. Hered., 2006, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 77–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bagli, M., Papassotiropoulos, A., Knapp, M., et al., Association between an Interleukin-6 Promoter and 3’ Flanking Region Haplotype and Reduced Alzheimer’s Disease Risk in a German Population, Neurosci. Lett., 2000, vol. 283, no. 2, pp. 109–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Faltraco, F., Burger, K., Zill, P., et al., Interleukin-6-174 G/C Promoter Gene Polymorphism C Allele Reduces Alzheimer’s Disease Risk, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 2003, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 578–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mohlig, M., Boeing, H., Spranger, J., et al., Body Mass Index and C-174G Interleukin-6 Promoter Polymorphism Interact in Predicting Type 2 Diabetes, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2004, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 1885–1890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schotte, H., Schluter, B., Rust, S., et al., Interleukin-6 Promoter Polymorphism (-174G/C) in Caucasian German Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatology, 2001, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 393–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sie, M.P., Mattace-Raso, F.U., Uitterlinden, A.G., et al., The Interleukin-6-174 G/C Promoter Polymorphism and Arterial Stiffness: The Rotterdam Study, Vasc. Health Risk Manag., 2008, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 863–869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tsezou, A., Poultsides, L., Kostopoulou, F., et al., Influence of Interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-4, and IL-6 Polymorphisms on Genetic Susceptibility to Chronic Osteomyelitis, Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 2008, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1888–1890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hamid, Y.H., Rose, C.S., Urhammer, S.A., et al., Variations of the Interleukin-6 Promoter Are Associated with Features of the Metabolic Syndrome in Caucasian Danes, Diabetologia, 2005, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 251–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Balding, J., Healy, C.M., Livingstone, W.J., et al., Genomic Polymorphic Profiles in an Irish Population with Meningococcaemia: Is It Possible to Predict Severity and Outcome of Disease?, Genes Immun., 2003, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 533–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Landi, S., Moreno, V., Gioia-Patricola, L., et al., Association of Common Polymorphisms in Inflammatory Genes Interleukin (IL)6, IL8, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, NFKB1, and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma with Colorectal Cancer, Cancer Res., 2003, vol. 63, no. 13, pp. 3560–3566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vozarova, B., Fernandez-Real, J.M., Knowler, W.C., et al., The Interleukin-6 (-174)G/C Promoter Polymorphism Is Associated with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Native Americans and Caucasians, Hum. Genet., 2003, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 409–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Licastro, F., Grimaldi, L.M., Bonafe, M., et al., Interleukin-6 Gene Alleles Affect the Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease and Levels of the Cytokine in Blood and Brain, Neurobiol. Aging, 2003, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 921–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pola, R., Flex, A., Gaetani, E., et al., The -174G/C Polymorphism of the Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter and Essential Hypertension in an Elderly Italian Population, J. Hum. Hypertens., 2002, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 637–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Latkovskis, G., Licis, N., and Kalnins, U., C-Reactive Protein Levels and Common Polymorphisms of the Interleukin-1 Gene Cluster and Interleukin-6 Gene in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease, Eur. J. Immunogenet., 2004, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 207–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Trajkov, D., Mishevska-Perchinkova, S., Karadzova-Stojanoska, A., et al., Association of 22 Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Population of Ethnic Macedonians, Clin. Rheumatol., 2009, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1291–1300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Opdal, S.H. and Rognum, T.O., The IL6-174G/C Polymorphism and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Hum. Immunol., 2007, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 541–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mazur, G., Bogunia-Kubik, K., Wrobel, T., et al., IL-6 and IL-10 Promoter Gene Polymorphisms Do not Associate with the Susceptibility for Multiple Myeloma, Immunol. Lett., 2005, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Santos, M.J., Fernandes, D., Capela, S., et al., Interleukin-6 Promoter Polymorphism -174G/C Is Associated with Nephritis in Portuguese Caucasian Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients, Clin. Rheumatol., 2011, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 409–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Javor, J., Ferencik, S., Bucova, M., et al., Polymorphisms in the Genes Encoding TGF-beta1, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 Show Association with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in the Slovak Population, Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp., 2010, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 385–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Maver, A., Medica, I., Salobir, B., et al., Polymorphisms in Genes Coding for Mediators in the Interleukin Cascade and Their Effect on Susceptibility to Sarcoidosis in the Slovenian Population, Int. J. Mol. Med., 2007, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 385–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Litovkin, K.V., Domenyuk, V.P., Bubnov, V.V., et al., Interleukin-6-174G/C Polymorphism in Breast Cancer and Uterine Leiomyoma Patients: A Population-Based Case Control Study, Exp. Oncol., 2007, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 295–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hulkkonen, J., Pertovaara, M., Antonen, J., et al., Elevated Interleukin-6 Plasma Levels Are Regulated by the Promoter Region Polymorphism of the IL6 Gene in Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome and Correlate with the Clinical Manifestations of the Disease, Rheumatology, 2001, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 656–661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vaxillaire, M., Veslot, J., Dina, C., et al., Impact of Common Type 2 Diabetes Risk Polymorphisms in the DESIR Prospective Study, Diabetes, 2008, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 244–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Berkovic, M.C., Jokic, M., Marout, J., et al., IL-6 −174C/G Polymorphism in the Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP-NETs), Exp. Mol. Pathol., 2007, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 474–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Holla, L.I., Fassmann, A., Stejskalova, A., et al., Analysis of the Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms in Czech Patients with Chronic Periodontitis, J. Periodontol., 2004, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 30–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hakansson, A., Westberg, L., Nilsson, S., et al., Interaction of Polymorphisms in the Genes Encoding Interleukin-6 and Estrogen Receptor Beta on the Susceptibility to Parkinson’s Disease, Am. J. Med. Genet. Part B, 2005, vol. 133B, no. 1, pp. 88–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Basso, F., Lowe, G.D., Rumley, A., et al., Interleukin-6-174G>C Polymorphism and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS), Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2002, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 599–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Moscovis, S.M., Gordon, A.E., Al Madani, O.M., et al., IL6 G-174C Associated with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in a Caucasian Australian Cohort, Hum. Immunol., 2006, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 819–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mansoori, N., Tripathi, M., Luthra, K., et al., MTHFR (677 and 1298) and IL-6-174 G/C Genes in Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia and Their Epistatic Interaction, Neurobiol. Aging, 2012, vol. 33, no. 5, p. 1003 e1-8.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kesarwani, P., Ahirwar, D., Singh, R., et al., Do IL-4 Intron 3 VNTR and IL-6(-174)G/C Variants Reflect Ethnic Variation? A Comparative Study between the Global and North Indian Populations, Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2008, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 76–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sobti, R.C., Berhane, N., Mahedi, S.A., et al., Polymorphisms of IL-6 174G/C, IL-10 -592C/A and Risk of HIV/AIDS among North Indian Population, Mol. Cell Biochem., 2010, vol. 337, nos. 1–2, pp. 145–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Suhardjono, Malnutrition-Inflammation Syndrome in a Hemodialysis Population: The Influence of Polymorphic IL-6 -174 and IL-10-1082 Genes, Acta Med. Indones., 2006, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 145–149.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tong, Y., Wang, Z., Geng, Y., et al., The Association of Functional Polymorphisms of IL-6 Gene Promoter with Ischemic Stroke: Analysis in Two Chinese Populations, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2010, vol. 391, no. 1, pp. 481–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chang, Y.T., Liu, H.N., Yu, C.W., et al., Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Bullous Pemphigoid in a Chinese Population, Br. J. Dermatol., 2006, vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 79–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Xiao, L.M., Yan, Y.X., Xie, C.J., et al., Association among Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphism, Diabetes and Periodontitis in a Chinese Population, Oral Dis., 2009, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 547–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zhai, R., Liu, G., Yang, C., et al., The G to C Polymorphism at -174 of the Interleukin-6 Gene Is Rare in a Southern Chinese Population, Pharmacogenetics, 2001, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 699–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Huang, X.Z., Zhuang, J.H., Ren, Y.G., et al., [Association of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-18 Gene Polymorphism with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Guangdong Han Population], Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 2007, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1661–1664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lim, C.S., Zheng, S., Kim, Y.S., et al., The -174 G to C Polymorphism of Interleukin-6 Gene Is Very Rare in Koreans, Cytokine, 2002, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 52–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Park, B.L., Lee, H.S., Kim, Y.J., et al., Association between Interleukin 6 Promoter Variants and Chronic Hepatitis B Progression, Exp. Mol. Med., 2003, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 76–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pyo, C.W., Hur, S.S., Kim, Y.K., et al., Polymorphisms of IL-1B, IL-1RN, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-Gamma Genes in the Korean Population, Hum. Immunol., 2003, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 979–989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chua, K.H., Kee, B.P., Tan, S.Y., et al., Interleukin-6 Promoter Polymorphisms (-174 G/C) in Malaysian Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 2009, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 551–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Trejaut, J.A., Tsai, Z.U., Lee, H.L., et al., Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Taiwan, Tissue Antigens, 2004, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 492–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nakajima, T., Ota, N., Yoshida, H., et al., Allelic Variants in the Interleukin-6 Gene and Essential Hypertension in Japanese Women, Genes Immun., 1999, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 115–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hayakawa, T., Takamura, T., Hisada, A., et al., IL-6 Gene Polymorphism -174G/C Does not Contribute Substantially to Hyperlipidaemia and Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Japanese Men, Diabetologia, 2002, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 453–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Prigoshin, N., Tambutti, M., Larriba, J., et al., Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss of Unknown Cause, Am. J. Reprod. Immunol., 2004, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 36–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Vasunilashorn, S., Finch, C.E., Crimmins, E.M., et al., Inflammatory Gene Variants in the Tsimane, an Indigenous Bolivian Population with a High Infectious Load, Biodemogr. Soc. Biol., 2011, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 33–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Moreira, P.R., Lima, P.M., Sathler, K.O., et al., Interleukin-6 Expression and Gene Polymorphism Are Associated with Severity of Periodontal Disease in a Sample of Brazilian Individuals, Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2007, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 119–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gadelha, S.R., Junior Alcantara, L.C., Costa, G.C., et al., Correlation between Polymorphisms at Interleukin-6 but not at Interleukin-10 Promoter and the Risk of Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis in Brazilian Individuals, J. Med. Virol., 2008, vol. 80, no. 12, pp. 2141–2146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pieroni, F., Lourenco, D.M., Morelli, V.M., et al., Cytokine Gene Variants and Venous Thrombotic Risk in the BRATROS (BRAZILIAN THROMBOSIS STUDY), Thromb. Res., 2007, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 221–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Larcombe, L.A., Orr, P.H., Lodge, A.M., et al., Functional Gene Polymorphisms in Canadian Aboriginal Populations with High Rates of Tuberculosis, J. Infect. Dis., 2008, vol. 198, no. 8, pp. 1175–1179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wohlfahrt, J.C., Wu, T., Hodges, J.S., et al., No Association between Selected Candidate Gene Polymorphisms and Severe Chronic Periodontitis, J. Periodontol., 2006, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 426–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jenny, N.S., Tracy, R.P., Ogg, M.S., et al., In the Elderly, Interleukin-6 Plasma Levels and the −174G>C Polymorphism Are Associated with the Development of Cardiovascular Disease, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2002, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2066–2071.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Halverstadt, A., Phares, D.A., Roth, S., et al., Interleukin-6 Genotype Is Associated with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Responses to Exercise Training, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2005, vol. 1734, no. 2, pp. 143–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Michaud, D.S., Daugherty, S.E., Berndt, S.I., et al., Genetic Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1B (IL-1B), IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and Risk of Prostate Cancer, Cancer Res., 2006, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 4525–4530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Delaney, N.L., Esquenazi, V., Lucas, D.P., et al., TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, IL-10, IL-6, and INF-Gamma Alleles among African Americans and Cuban Americans: Report of the ASHI Minority Workshops: Part 4, Hum. Immunol., 2004, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 1413–1419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Parra-Rojas, I., Ruiz-Madrigal, B., Martinez-Lopez, E., et al., Influence of the -308 TNF-alpha and -174 IL-6 Polymorphisms on Lipid Profile in Mexican Subjects, Hereditas, 2006, vol. 143, no. 2006, pp. 167–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Guarnizo-Zuccardi, P., Lopez, Y., Giraldo, M., et al., Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Colombian Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Tissue Antigens, 2007, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 376–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Perez-Bravo, F., Soto, M.F., Lopez, A.P., et al., -174 G/C Polymorphism of Interleukin 6 Gene in Women with Type 1 Diabetes, Rev. Med. Chil., 2011, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 158–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. A. Borinskaya
    • 1
  • A. S. Gureev
    • 1
  • A. A. Orlova
    • 2
  • E. D. Sanina
    • 1
  • A. A. Kim
    • 1
    • 3
  • F. Gasemianrodsari
    • 1
  • V. I. Shirmanov
    • 4
  • O. P. Balanovsky
    • 1
    • 5
  • D. V. Rebrikov
    • 1
    • 6
  • A. V. Koshechkin
    • 4
  • N. K. Yankovsky
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Vavilov Institute of General GeneticsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of GeneticsLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Moscow Institute of Physics and TechnologyMoscow Oblast, DolgoprudnyRussia
  4. 4.Department of TuberculosisPeoples’ Friendship University of RussiaMoscowRussia
  5. 5.Research Center for Medical GeneticsRussian Academy of Medical SciencesMoscowRussia
  6. 6.DNA-Technology JSCMoscowRussia
  7. 7.Dept. of Biol.University of ZanjanZanjanIran

Personalised recommendations