Russian Journal of Genetics

, Volume 46, Issue 11, pp 1386–1394 | Cite as

The genetic history of Russian old settlers of polar northeastern Siberia

  • R. I. Sukernik
  • N. V. Volodko
  • I. O. Mazunin
  • N. P. Eltsov
  • E. B. Starikovskaya
Human Genetics


The mtDNA variation has been studied in representatives of the Russkoe Ust’e (n = 30), Kolyma (n = 31), and Markovo (n = 26) ethnic subgroups originating from Russian military men, hunters, and fishers who married local Yukaghir women and settled at the Arctic Ocean coast and on the Anadyr’ River more than 350 years ago. The mtDNA haplotypes characteristic of indigenous Siberian peoples have been demonstrated to form the basis of the mitochondrial gene pool of Russian old settlers of the region. Only one of 30 identified haplotypes belonging to 11 haplogroups (H2a) is characteristic of European populations. The C and D haplogroups are the most diverse. The analysis has revealed the characteristics of the population structure of the Russian old settlers and allowed them to be interpreted in terms of recent historical and environmental processes.


Coalescence Time Genetic History Mitochondrial Haplogroups Yakut Population Mitochondrial Gene Pool 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Otkrytiya russkikh zemleprokhodtsev i polyarnykh morekhodov XVII veka (Discoveries of Russian Land Explorers and Polar Seafarers in the 17th Century), Efimov, A.V., Ed., Moscow: Gos. Izd. Geograficheskoi Literatury, 1951.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vakhtin, N.B., Golovko, E.V., and Shvaittser, P., Russkie starozhily Sibiri: Sotsial’nye i simvolicheskie aspekty samosoznaniya (Russian Long-Term Residents of Siberia: Social and Symbolic Aspects of Self-Consciousness), Moscow: Novoe Izd., 2004.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Russkie starozhily Sibiri (Russian Long-Term Residents of Siberia), Bunak, V.V. and Zolotarev, I.M., Eds., Moscow: Nauka, 1973.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dolgikh, B., Clan and Tribal Composition of Siberian Population in the 17th Century, in Trudy Instituta etnografii AN SSSR (Proceedings of the Institute of Ethnography Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union), 1960, vol. 55, pp. 3–623.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bogoraz, V., Russians on the Kolyma River, Zhizn’, 1899, vol. 6, pp. 103–125.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D’yachkov, G., Anadyrskii krai (Anadyr’ Krai), Vladivostok, 1893.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Johelson, W., The Yukaghir and the Yukaghirized Tungus: The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, New York: Leiden, 1910, vol. 1–3.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zenzinov, V.M., Starinnye lyudi u kholodnogo okeana (Ancient People by the Cold Ocean), Moscow, 1914.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chikachev, A., Russkie na Indigirke: istorikoetnograficheskii ocherk (Russians on the Indigirka River: A Historical Ethnographic Essay), Novosibirsk: Nauka, Sibirskoe Otdelenie, 1990.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Birkenhoff, A., Potomki zemleprokhodcev: Vospominaniya—ocherki o russkich porechanakh nizov’ya i delty reki Indigirki (The Ancestros of Land Explorers: Memoirs about Russian Porech’e Populations of the Lower Reaches and Delta of the Indigirka River), Moscow: Mysl’, 1972.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chikachev, A., Pokhodsk: Starinnoe russkoe selo na Kolyme (Pokhodsk: An Old Russian Village on the Kolyma River), Irkutsk: 1993.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Derbeneva, O.A., Sukernik, R.I., Volodko, N.V., et al., Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Aleuts of the Commander Islands and Its Implications for the Genetic History of Beringia, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2002, vol. 71, pp. 415–421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Starikovskaya, E.B., Sukernik, R.I., Derbeneva, O.A., et al., Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Indigenous Populations of the Southern Extent of Siberia, and the Origins of Native American Haplogroups, Ann. Hum. Genet., 2005, vol. 69, pp. 67–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Volodko, N.V., Starikovskaya, E.B., Mazunin, I.O., et al., Mitochondrial Genome Diversity in Arctic Siberians, with Particular Reference to the Evolutionary History of Beringia and Pleistocenic Peopling of the Americas, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2008, vol. 82, pp. 1084–1100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Torroni, A., Sukernik, R.I., Schurr, T.G., et al., mtDNA Variation of Aboriginal Siberians Reveals Distinct Genetic Affinities with Native Americans, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 1993, vol. 53, pp. 591–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    van Oven, M. and Kayser, M., Updated Comprehensive Phylogenetic Tree of Global Human Mitochondrial DNA Variation, Hum. Mutat., 2009, vol. 30, pp. E386–E394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cavalli-Sforza, L. and Bodmer, W.F., The Genetics of Human Populations, San Francisco: Freeman, 1971.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Morral, N., Bertranpetit, J., Estivill, X., et al., The Origin of the Major Cystic Fibrosis Mutation (delta F508) in European Populations, Nat Genet., 1994, vol. 7, pp. 169–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saillard, J., Forster, P., Lynnerup, N., et al., mtDNA Variation among Greenland Eskimos: The Edge of the Beringian Expansion, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2000, vol. 67, pp. 718–726.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mishmar, D., Ruiz-Pesini, E., Golik, P., et al., Natural Selection Shaped Regional mtDNA Variation in Humans, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2003, vol. 100, pp. 171–176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Starikovskaya, Y.B., Sukernik, R.I., Schurr, T.G., et al., mtDNA Diversity in Chukchi and Siberian Eskimos: Implications for the Genetic History of Ancient Beringia and the Peopling of the New World, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 1998, vol. 63, pp. 1473–1491.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Helgason, A., Palsson, G., Pedersen, H.S., et al., mtDNA Variation in Inuit Populations of Greenland and Canada: Migration History and Population Structure, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 2006, vol. 130, pp. 123–134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schurr, T.G., Sukernik, R.I., Starikovskaya, Y.B., and Wallace D.C., Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Koryaks and Itel’men: Population Replacement in the Okhotsk Sea-Bering Sea Region during the Neolithic, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 1999, vol. 108, pp. 1–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ricaut, F.X., Kolodesnikov, S., Keyser-Tracqui, C., et al., Molecular Genetic Analysis of 400-Year-Old Human Remains Found in Two Yakut Burial Sites, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 2006, vol. 129, pp. 55–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pakendorf, B., Novgorodov, I.N., Osakovskij, V.L., et al., Investigating the Effects of Prehistoric Migrations in Siberia: Genetic Variation and the Origins of Yakuts, Hum. Genet., 2006, vol. 120, pp. 334–353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fedorova, S.A., Bermisheva, M.A., Villems, R., et al., Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Yakut Population, Mol. Biol. (Moscow), 2003, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 643–653.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tanaka, M., Cabrera, V.M., Gonzalez, A.M., et al., Mitochondrial Genome Variation in Eastern Asia and the Peopling of Japan, Genome Res., 2004, vol. 14, pp. 1832–1850.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Finnilla S., Lehtonen, M.S., and Majamaa, K., Phylogenetic Network for European mtDNA, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2001, vol. 68, pp. 1475–1484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Herrnstadt, C., Elson, J.L., Fahy, E., et al., Reduced-Median-Network Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial DNA Coding-Region Sequences for the Major African, Asian, and European Haplogroups, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2002, vol. 70, pp. 1152–1171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Malyarchuk, B.A., Grzybowski, T., Derenko, M.V., et al., Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny in Eastern and Western Slavs, Mol. Biol. Evol., 2008, vol. 25, pp. 1651–1658.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Derbeneva, O.A., Starikovskaya, E.B., Wallace, D.C., and Sukernik, R.I., Traces of Early Eurasians in the Mansi of Northwest Siberia Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2002, vol. 70, pp. 1009–1014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Derbeneva O.A., Starikovskaia E.B., Volodko N.V., et al., Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Kets and Nganasans and the Early Peoples of Northern Eurasia, Russ. J. Genet., 2002, vol. 38, pp. 1554–1560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Andrews R.M., Kubacka I., Chinnery P.F., et al., Reanalysis and Revision of the Cambridge Reference Sequence for Human Mitochondrial DNA, Nat. Genet., 1999, vol. 23, p. 147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. I. Sukernik
    • 1
  • N. V. Volodko
    • 1
  • I. O. Mazunin
    • 1
  • N. P. Eltsov
    • 2
  • E. B. Starikovskaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian BranchRussian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian BranchRussian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia

Personalised recommendations