Russian Journal of Genetics

, Volume 46, Issue 9, pp 1039–1041 | Cite as

Methods of molecular cytogenetics for studying interphase chromosomes in human brain cells

  • I. Yu. Iourov
  • S. G. Vorsanova
  • I. V. Solov’ev
  • Yu. B. Yurov


One of the main genetic factors determining the functional activity of the genome in somatic cells, including brain nerve cells, is the spatial organization of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus. For a long time, no studies of human brain cells were carried out until high-resolution methods of molecular cytogenetics were developed to analyze interphase chromosomes in nondividing somatic cells. The purpose of the present work was to assess the potential of high-resolution methods of interphase molecular cytogenetics for studying chromosomes and the nuclear organization in postmitotic brain cells. A high efficiency was shown by such methods as multiprobe and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Multiprobe FISH and QFISH), ImmunoMFISH (analysis of the chromosome organization in different types of brain cells), and interphase chromosome-specific multicolor banding (ICS-MCB). These approaches allowed studying the nuclear organization depending on the gene composition and types of repetitive DNA of specific chromosome regions in certain types of brain cells (in neurons and glial cells, in particular). The present work demonstrates a high potential of interphase molecular cytogenetics for studying the structural and functional organizations of the cell nucleus in highly differentiated nerve cells. Analysis of interphase chromosomes of brain cells in the normal and pathological states can be considered as a promising line of research in modern molecular cytogenetics and cell neurobiology, i. e., molecular neurocytogenetics.


Brain Cell Interphase Nucleus Chromosome Organization Nuclear Organization Nuclear Architecture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Schneider, R. and Grosschedl, R., Dynamics and Interplay of Nuclear Architecture, Genome Organization, and Gene Expression, Genes Dev., 2007, vol. 21, no. 23, pp. 3027–3043.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gondor, A. and Ohlsson, R., Chromosome Crosstalk in Three Dimensions, Nature, 2009, vol. 461, no. 7261, pp. 212–217.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Iourov, I.Y., Vorsanova, S.G., and Yurov, Y.B., Chromosomal Variation in Mammalian Neuronal Cells: Known Facts and Attractive Hypotheses, Int. Rev. Cytol., 2006, vol. 249, pp. 143–191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Takizawa, T. and Meshorer, E., Chromatin and Nuclear Architecture in the Nervous System, Trends Neurosci., 2008, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 343–352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Muotri, A.R. and Gage, F.H., Generation of Neuronal Variability and Complexity, Nature, 2006, vol. 441, no. 7097, pp. 1087–1093.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weierich, C., Brero, A., Stein, S., et al., Three-Dimensional Arrangements of Centromeres and Telomeres in Nuclei of Human and Murine Lymphocytes, Chromo-some Res., 2003, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 485–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Iourov, I.Y., Liehr, T., Vorsanova, S.G., et al., Visualization of Interphase Chromosomes in Postmitotic Cells of the Human Brain by Multicolour Banding (MCB), Chromosome Res., 2006, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 223–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Iourov, I.Y., Liehr, T., Vorsanova, S.G., and Yurov, Y.B., Interphase Chromosome-Specific Multicolor Banding (ICS-MCB): A New Tool for Analysis of Interphase Chromosomes in Their Integrity, Biomol. Eng., 2007, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 415–417.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kupper, K., Kolbl, A., Biener, D., et al., Radial Chromatin Positioning Is Shaped by Local Gene Density, not by Gene Expression, Chromosoma, 2007, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 285–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Iourov, I.Y., Vorsanova, S.G., and Yurov, Y.B., Intercellular Genomic (Chromosomal) Variations Resulting in Somatic Mosaicism: Mechanisms and Consequences, Curr. Genomics, 2006, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 435–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Manvelyan, M., Hunstig, F., Bhatt, S., et al., Chromosome Distribution in Human Sperm-a 3D Multicolor Banding-Study, Mol. Cytogenet., 2008, vol. 1, p. 25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Iourov, I.Y., Vorsanova, S.G., Liehr, T., and Yurov, Y.B., Aneuploidy in the Normal, Alzheimer’s Disease and Ataxia-Telangiectasia Brain: Differential Expression and Pathological Meaning, Neurobiol. Dis., 2009, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 212–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liehr, T., FISH: Application Guide, Berlin: Springer, 2009.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yurov, Y.B., Iourov, I.Y., Vorsanova, S.G., et al., Aneuploidy and Confined Chromosomal Mosaicism in the Developing Human Brain, PLoS ONE, 2007, vol. 2, no. 6, p. e558.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Iourov, I.Y., Vorsanova, S.G., Liehr, T., et al., Increased Chromosome Instability Dramatically Disrupts Neural Genome Integrity and Mediates Cerebellar Degeneration in the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Brain, Hum. Mol. Genet., 2009, vol. 18, no. 14, pp. 2656–2669.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vorsanova, S.G., Iourov, I.Y., Voinova-Ulas, V.Y., et al., Partial Monosomy 7q34-qter and 21pter-q22.13 Due to Cryptic Unbalanced Translocation t(7;21) but not Monosomy of the Whole Chromosome 21: A Case Report Plus Review of the Literature, Mol. Cytogenet., 2008, vol. 1, p. 13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krueger, C. and Osborne, C.S., Raising the Curtains on Interchromosomal Interactions, Trends Genet., 2006, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 637–639.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Iourov, I.Y., Soloviev, I.V., Vorsanova, S.G., et al., An Approach for Quantitative Assessment of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) Signals for Applied Human Molecular Cytogenetics, J. Histochem. Cytochem., 2005, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 401–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Iourov, I.Y., Vorsanova, S.G., and Yurov, Y.B., Chromosomal Mosaicism Goes Global, Mol. Cytogenet., 2008, vol. 1, p. 26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yurov, Y.B., Vorsanova, S.G., and Iourov, I.Y., GIN’nCIN Hypothesis of Brain Aging: Deciphering the Role of Somatic Genetic Instabilities and Neural Aneuploidy during Ontogeny, Mol. Cytogenet., 2009, vol. 2, p. 23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Yu. Iourov
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. G. Vorsanova
    • 1
    • 2
  • I. V. Solov’ev
    • 1
  • Yu. B. Yurov
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Mental Health Research CenterRussian Academy of Medical SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.RosmedtechnologiiInstitute of Pediatrics and Children SurgeryMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations