Russian Journal of Genetics

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 726–737 | Cite as

Patterns of genetic diversity in population complexes of pacific chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum, from Asia and America, inferred from allozyme polymorphism data

  • V. A. Savin
  • N. V. Varnavskaya
  • R. A. Shaporev
Animal Genetics


Based on the data of Russian and foreign researchers, a database, consisting of 100 allozyme-coding loci examined in 288 chum salmon populations from Asia and Northern America, was constructed. Using G-test, genetic heterogeneity of Asian population samples of chum salmon was evaluated. Correlations between the frequencies of major alleles and geographic latitude of the mouths of native rivers were estimated. Using the methods of Nei and Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, for different local chum salmon stock groups the genetic distances at the number of polymorphic enzyme loci were determined. Analysis of these distances made it possible to evaluate the patterns of genetic diversity in regional population groups from the Russian Far East, Japan, and North America. The proportions of genetic variation at each hierarchical level, identified in accordance with the geographical positions of the populations, were estimated through partitioning of variation in Asian populations into within and between-population components. It was demonstrated that intraspecific genetic structure of chum salmon corresponded geographic subdivision into regional population groups.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Okazaki, T., Genetic Study on Population Structure in Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), Bull. Far Seas Fish. Res. Lab., 1982, vol. 19, pp. 25–116.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Viktorovsky, R.M., Bachevskaya, L.T., Ermolenko, L.N., et al., Genetic Population Structure of Chum Salmon from the Northeast of the Soviet Union and the Problems of Rational Usage of its Reserves, Biol. Morya, 1986, no. 2, pp. 51–59.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Makoedov, A.N., Ermolenko, L.N., Bachevskaya, L.T., and Ovchinnikov, K.A., Genetic Variation of Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum), Reproducing in the Rivers of the Kamchatka Coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, Russ. J. Genet., 1995, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1552–1556.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Altukhov, Yu.P., Salmenkova, E.A., Ryabova, G.D., and Kulikova, N.I., Population Genetic Differentiation of Chum Salmon and Effectiveness of Some Acclimatization Measures, Biol. Morya, 1980, no. 3, pp. 23–38.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salmenkova, E.A., Altukhov, Yu.P., Viktorovsky, R.M., et al., Population Genetic Structure of Chum Salmon Reproducing in the Rivers of the Far East and the Northeast of the Soviet Union, 1986, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 529–548.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Salmenkova, E.A., Omel’chenko, V.T., and Altukhov, Yu.P., Gene Geographic Investigation of Chum Salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum), Populations in the Asian Part of the Species Range, Russ. J. Genet., 1992, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 76–92.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Omel’chenko, V.T., Salmenkova, E.A., and Afanas’ev, K.I., Population Genetic Structure of Chum Salmon from Primorye, Russ. J. Genet., 1992, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 102–113.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beacham, T.D., Withler, R.E., and Gould, A.P., Biochemical Genetic Stock Identification of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Southern British Columbia, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1985, vol. 42, pp. 437–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beacham, T.D., Gould, A.P., Withler, R.E., et al., Biochemical Genetic Survey and Stock Identification of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in British Columbia, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1987, vol. 44, pp. 1702–1713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wilmot, R.L., Everett, R.J., Spearman, W.J., et al., Genetic Stock Structure of Western Alaska Chum Salmon and a Comparison with Russian Far East Stocks, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1994, vol. 51,suppl. 1, pp. 84–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kondzela, C.M., Guthrie, C.M., Hawkins, S.L., et al., Genetic Relationships among Chum Salmon Population in Southeast Alaska and Northern British Columbia Salmon, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1994, vol. 51,suppl. 1, pp. 50–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Phelps, S.R., LeClair, L.L., Young, S., and Blankenship, H.L., Genetic Diversity Patterns of Chum Salmon in the Pacific Northwest, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1994, vol. 51,suppl. 1, pp. 65–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Winans, G.A., Aebersold, P.B., Urawa, S., and Varnavskaya, N.V., Determining Continent of Origin of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) Using Genetic Stock Identification Techniques: Status of Allozyme Baseline on Asia, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1994, vol. 51,suppl. 1, pp. 95–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Varnavskaya, N., Wilmot, R., Kondzela, C., et al., Genetic Variation in Asian Populations of Chum Salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum), NPAFC Bull., 1998, no. 1, p. 504.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Seeb, L.W. and Crane, P.A., High Genetic Heterogeineity in Chum Salmon in Western Alaska, the Contact Zone between Northern and Southern Lineages, Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 1999, vol. 128, pp. 58–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Seeb, L.W. and Crane, P.A., Allozymes and Mitochondrial DNA Discriminate Asian and North American Populations of Chum Salmon in Mixed-Stock Fisheries along the South Coast of the Alaska Peninsula, Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 1999b, vol. 128, pp. 88–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Varnavskaya, N.V., Principles of Genetic Identification of the Populations of Pacific Salmon of the Genus Oncorhynchus spp. in Association with the Problems of Ratio nal Fishery, Extended Abstract of Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow: Institute of General Genetics Russian Academy of Sciences, 2001, p. 48.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Efremov, V.V., Genetic Variation and Differentiation among Populations of Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) from Southern Russian Far East, Russ. J. Genet., 2001, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 365–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Salmenkova, E.A., Omel’chenko, V.T., Roslyi, Yu.S., et al., Genetic Differentiation of Chum Salmon from Amur Drainage, Russ. J. Genet., 1994, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 518–528.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Varnavskaya, N.V., Gene Geography over Allozyme Loci in Pacific Salmon, in Populyatsionnaya biologiya, genetika i sistematika gidrobiontov (Population Biology, Genetics, and Systematics of Hydrobionts), Sci. Papers Collection of KamchatNIRO, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii: KamchatNIRO, 2005, issue 1, pp. 28–62.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wilmot, R.L., Kondzela, C.M., Guthrie, C.M., and Masuda, M.S., Genetic Stock Identification of Chum Salmon Harvested Incidentally in 1994 and 1995 Bering Sea Trawl Fisheries, Assessment and Status of Pacific Rim Salmonid Stocks, Proc. Int. NPAFC Symp., NPAFC Bull., 1998, no. 1, pp. 285–299.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, F.G., Biometry, San Francisco: Freeman, 1981, 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nei, M, Genetic Distances and Molecular Phylogeny, Populations Genetics and Fishery Management, Ryman, N. and Utter, F., Eds., Seattle: Univ. Washington Press, 1986, pp. 193–223.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. and Edwards, A.W.F., Phylogenetic Analysis: Models and Estimation Procedure, Evolution, 1967, vol. 21, pp. 550–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sneath, P.H.A. and Sokal, R.R., Numerical Taxonomy, San-Francisco: Freeman, 1973.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, F.G., The Comparison of Dendrograms by Objective Methods, Taxon, 1962, no. 11, pp. 33–40.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Withler, R.E., LDH-4 Allozyme Variability in North American Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Populations, Can. J. Zool., 1985, vol. 63, pp. 2924–2932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Melekestsev, I.V., Braitseva, O.A., Erlikh, E.N., et al., Kamchatka, Kuril, and Commander Islands, in Istoriya razvitiya rel’efa Sibiri i Dal’nego Vostoka (History of the Siberia and Far East Relief Development), Moscow: Nauka, 1974.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Altukhov, Yu.P., Salmenkova, E.A., and Omel’chenko, V.T., Populyatsionnaya genetika lososevykh ryb (Population Genetics of Salmonids), Moscow: Nauka, 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. A. Savin
    • 1
  • N. V. Varnavskaya
    • 1
  • R. A. Shaporev
    • 1
  1. 1.Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and OceanographyPetropavlovsk-KamchatskiRussia

Personalised recommendations