Russian Journal of Genetics

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 344–349 | Cite as

On the origin of Mongoloid component in the mitochondrial gene pool of Slavs

  • B. A. MalyarchukEmail author
  • M. A. Perkova
  • M. V. Derenko
Human Genetics


The data on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction polymorphism in Czech population (n = 279) are presented. It was demonstrated that in terms of their structure, mitochondrial gene pools of Czechs and other Slavic populations (Russians, Poles, Slovenians, and Bosnians) were practically indistinguishable. In Czechs, the frequency of eastern-Eurasian (Mongoloid) mtDNA lineages constituted 1.8%. The spread of eastern-Eurasian mtDNA lineages belonging to different ethnolinguistic groups in the populations of Europe was examined. Frequency variations of these DNA lineages in different Slavic groups was observed, with the range from 1.2 and 1.6% in Southern and Western Slavs, respectively, to 1.3 to 5.2% in Eastern Slavs, the Russian population of Eastern Europe. The highest frequency of Mongoloid component was detected in the mitochondrial gene pools of Russian populations from the Russian North and the Northwestern region of Russia. This finding can be explained in terms of assimilation of northern-European Finno-Ugric populations during the formation of the Russian population of these regions. The origin of Mongoloid component in the gene pools of different groups of Slavs is discussed.


Gene Pool Russian Population Czech Population Slavic Population Ethnolinguistic Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Achilli, A., Rengo, C., Battaglia, V., et al., The Molecular Dissection of mtDNA Haplogroup H Confirms That the Franco-Cantabrian Glacial Refuge Was a Major Source for the European Gene Pool, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2004, vol. 75, pp. 910–918.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Finnila, S., Lehtonen, M.S., and Majamaa, K., Phylogenetic Network for European mtDNA, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2001, vol. 68, pp. 1475–1484.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Loogvali, E.-L., Roostalu, U., Malyarchuk, B.A., et al., Disuniting Uniformity: A Pied Cladistic Canvas of mtDNA Haplogroup H in Eurasia, Mol. Biol. Evol., 2004, vol. 21, pp. 2012–2021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Macaulay, V., Richards, M., Hickey, E., et al., The Emerging Tree of West Eurasian mtDNAs: A Synthesis of Control-Region Sequences and RFLPs, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 1999, vol. 64, pp. 232–249.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Malyarchuk, B.A. and Derenko, M.V., Mitochondrial DNA Variability in Russians and Ukrainians: Implication to the Origin of the Eastern Slavs, Ann. Hum. Genet., 2001, vol. 65, pp. 63–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Richards, M.B., Macaulay, V.A., Bandelt, H.-J., and Sykes, B.C., Phylogeography of Mitochondrial DNA in Western Europe, Ann. Hum. Genet., 1998, vol. 62, pp. 241–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Richards, M.B., Macaulay, V.A., Hickey, E., et al., Tracing European Founder Lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA Pool, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2000, vol. 67, pp. 1251–1276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malyarchuk, B.A., Derenko, M.V., and Solovenchuk, L.L., Types of Mitochondrial DNA Control Region in the Eastern Slavs, Russ. J. Genet., 1995, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 723–727.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Calafell, F., Underhill, P., Tolun, A., et al., From Asia to Europe: Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variability in Bulgarians and Turks, Ann. Hum. Genet., 1996, vol. 60, pp. 35–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Orekhov, V., Poltoraus, A., Zhivotovsky, L.A., et al., Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Diversity in Russians, FEBS Lett., 1999, vol. 445, pp. 197–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tolk, H.V., Perii, M., Bara, L., et al., mtDNA Haplo-groups in the Populations of Croatian Adriatic Islands, Coll. Anthropol., 2000, vol. 24, pp. 267–279.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Malyarchuk, B.A., Grzybowski, T., Derenko, M.V., et al., Mitochondrial DNA Variability in Poles and Russians, Ann. Hum. Genet., 2002, vol. 66, pp. 261–283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malyarchuk, B.A., Grzybowski, T., Derenko, M.V., et al., Mitochondrial DNA Variability in Bosnians and Slovenians, Ann. Hum. Genet., 2003, vol. 67, pp. 412–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Belyaeva, O., Bermisheva, M., Khrunin, A., et al., Mitochondrial DNA Variations in Russian and Belorussian Populations, Hum. Biol., 2003, vol. 75, pp. 647–660.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cvjetan, S., Tolk, H.V., Barac Lauc L., et al., Frequencies of mtDNA Haplogroups in Southeastern Europe — Croatians, Bosnians and Herzegovinians, Serbians, Macedonians and Macedonian Romani, Coll. Anthropol., 2004, vol. 28, pp. 193–198.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Malyarchuk, B., Derenko, M., Grzybowski, T., et al., Differentiation of Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosome in Russian Populations, Hum. Biol., 2004, vol. 76, pp. 877–900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vanecek, T., Vorel, F., and Sip, M., Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Hypervariable Regions: Czech Population Data, Int. J. Legal Med., 2004, vol. 118, pp. 14–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zupanic Pajnic, I., Balazic, J., and Komel, R., Sequence Polymorphism of the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region in the Slovenian Population, Int. J. Legal Med., 2004, vol. 118, pp. 1–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Malyarchuk, B.A., Differentiation and Genetic Position of Slavs among Eurasian Ethnoses as Inferred from Variation in Mitochondrial DNA, Russ. J. Genet., 2001, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1437–1443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anderson, S., Bankier, A.T., Barrell, B.G., et al., Sequence and Organization of the Human Mitochondrial Genome, Nature, 1981, vol. 290, pp. 457–465.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Torroni, A., Huoponen, K., Francalacci, P., et al., Classification of European mtDNAs from an Analysis of Three European Populations, Genetics, 1996, vol. 144, pp. 1835–1850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Finnilä S., Hassinen I.E., Ala-Kokko, L., and Majamaa, K., Phylogenetic Network of the mtDNA Haplogroup U in Northern Finland Based on Sequence Analysis of the Complete Coding Region by Conformation-Sensitive Gel Electrophoresis, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2000, vol. 66, pp. 1017–1026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kong, Q.-P., Yao, Y.-G., Sun, C., et al., Phylogeny of East Asian Mitochondrial DNA Lineages Inferred from Complete Sequences, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2003, vol. 73, pp. 671–676.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Torroni, A., Achilli, A., Macaulay, V., et al., Harvesting the Fruit of the Human mtDNA Tree, Trends Genet., 2006, vol. 22, pp. 339–345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Salas, A., Richards, M., De la Fe, T., et al., The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2002, vol. 71, pp. 1082–1111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schneider, S., Roessli, D., and Excoffier, L., Arlequin Ver. 2.0: A Software for Population Genetics Data Analysis, Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, University of Geneva, 2000.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bermisheva, M., Tambets, K., Villems, R., and Khusnutdinova, E., Diversity of Haplogroup Mitochondrial DNA among the Populations of Volga-Ural Region of Russia, Mol. Biol. (Moscow), 2002, vol. 36, pp. 990–1001.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pliss, L., Tambets, K., Loogvali, E.-L., et al., Mitochondrial DNA Portrait of Latvians: Towards the Understanding of the Genetic Structure of Baltic-Speaking Populations, Ann. Hum. Genet., 2006, vol. 70, pp. 439–458.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sajantila, A., Lahermo, P., Anttinen, T., et al., Genes and Languages in Europe: An Analysis of Mitochondrial Lineages, Genome Res., 1995, vol. 5, pp. 42–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Semino, O., Passarino, G., Quintana-Murci, L., et al., mtDNA and Y Chromosome Polymorphisms in Hungary: Inferences from the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Uralic Influences on the Modern Hungarian Gene Pool, Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2000, vol. 8, pp. 339–346.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tambets, K., Rootsi, S., Kivisild, T., et al., The Western and Eastern Roots of the Saami-the Story of Genetic “Outliers” Told by Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomes, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2004, vol. 74, pp. 661–682.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lunkina, A.V., Denisova, G.A., Derenko, M.V., and Malyarchuk, B.A., Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Two Russian Populations from Novgorod Oblast, Russ. J. Genet., 2004, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 795–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Seibutis, A.A., The Problem of Balts and Slavs Ethnogeny from the Point of View of Paleogeography, Priroda, 1980, no. 11, pp. 78–85.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sedov, V.V., Slavyane v rannem srednevekov’e (Slavs in the Early Middle Ages), Moscow: Arkheologicheskii Fond, 1995.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alekseeva, T.I., Denisova, R.Ya., Kozlovskaya, M.V., et al., Neolit lesnoi polosy Vostochnoi Evropy (Antropologiya Sakhtyshskikh stoyanok) (Neolith of the Forest Zone of East Europe (Anthropology of Sakhtysh Sites)), Moscow: Nauchnyi Mir, 1997.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gokhman, I.I., Naselenie Ukrainy v epokhu mezolita i neolita (Population of Ukrainians during Mezolith and Neolith), Moscow: Acad. NaukSSSR, 1966.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Malyarchuk
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. A. Perkova
    • 1
  • M. V. Derenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biological Problems of the NorthRussian Academy of SciencesMagadanRussia

Personalised recommendations