Russian Journal of Genetics

, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 67–71 | Cite as

The effect of methyl supplements during pregnancy on the phenotypic modification of offspring agouti coat color in rats

  • L. A. Prasolova
  • L. N. Trut
  • I. N. Oskina
  • R. G. Gulevich
  • I. Z. Plyusnina
  • E. B. Vsevolodov
  • I. F. Latipov
Animal Genetics

Abstract

The effect of methyl supplements to the diet of pregnant homozygous (AAHH) female rats with agouti coat color mated with homozygous (aahh) males on the phenotypic modification of the coat color of their heterozygous offspring (AaHh) has been studied. Comparative morphological analysis of the main parameters of hair that determine coat color, including the total length of hairs of different types and the length of the upper black (eumelanin) and light (pheomelanin) parts of awn hairs has been performed. The pattern of pigment granule distribution among hair layers has been analyzed. The melanin content of the hair has been determined using electron spin resonance (ESR). Although all offspring have a typical agouti coat color (alternating black and light portions of hair), 39% of them have a darker coat color than control and other experimental rats have. The main differences between the offspring with darkened and standard coat colors are accounted for by the ratio between the eumelanin and pheomelanin portions of awn hairs. In darkened offspring, this ratio is significantly higher than in control rats. The possible mechanisms of the phenotypic modification of agouti coat color in experimental animals are discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Zeisel, S.H., Choline: A Nutrient That Is Involved in the Regulation of Cell Proliferation, Cell Death and Cell Transformation, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 1996, vol. 399, pp. 131–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jaenish, R. and Rird, A., Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression: How the Genome Integrates Intrinsic and Environmental Signals, Nat. Genet., 2003, vol. 33,Suppl., pp. 245–254.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cooney, C.A., Dave, A.A., and Wolff, G.L., Maternal Methyl Supplements in MiceAffect Epigenetic Variation and DNA Methylation of Offspring, J. Nutr., 2002, vol. 132, p. 2393S–2400S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Waterland, R.A. and Jirtle, R.L., Transposable Elements: Targets for Early Nutritional Effects on Epigenetic Gene Regulation, Mol. Cell Biol., 2003, vol. 23, pp. 5293–5300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wolff, G.L., Kodell, R.L., Moore, S.R., and Cooney, C.A., Maternal Epigenetics and Methyl Supplements Affect agouti Gene Expression in A vy/a Mice, FASEB J., 1998, vol. 12, pp. 949–957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bazhan, N.M., Yakovleva, T.V., and Makarova, E.N., Agouti Locus May Influence Reproduction under Food Deprivation in the Water Vole (Arvicola terrestris), J. Exp. Zool., 1999, vol. 283, pp. 573–579.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Trut, L.N., Plyusnina, I.Z., and Prasolova, L.A., Mutations hooded and nonagouti in Norway Rat Rattus norvegicus: Effects of Selection for Behavior and Photoperiod, Rus. J. Genet., 2000, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 668–676.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vsevolodov, E., Ito, S., Wakamatsu, K., et al., Comparative Analysis of Hair Melanins by Chemical and Electron Spin Resonance Methods, Pigment Cell Res., 1991, vol. 4, pp. 30–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Searle, A.G., Comparative Genetics of Coat Color in Mammals. London: Logos, 1968.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barsh, G.S., The Genetics of Pigmentation: From Fancy Genes to Complex Traits, Trends Genet., 1996, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 299–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Konyukhov, B.V., Genetic Control of Hair Pigmentation, Usp. Sovrem. Biol., 1990, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 3–19.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Makarova, E.N., Agouti Proteins: New Regulators of Melanocortin Hormones, Usp. Sovrem. Biol., 2002, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 365–375.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Oyehaug, L., Plahte, E., Vage, D.I., and Omholt, S.W., The Regulatory Basis of Melanogenic Switching, Theor. Biol., 2002, vol. 215, no. 4, pp. 449–468.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Klungland, H. and Vage, D.I., Molecular Genetics of Pigmentation in Domestic Animals, Curr. Genomics, 2000, vol. 1, pp. 223–242.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. Prasolova
    • 1
  • L. N. Trut
    • 1
  • I. N. Oskina
    • 1
  • R. G. Gulevich
    • 1
  • I. Z. Plyusnina
    • 1
  • E. B. Vsevolodov
    • 2
  • I. F. Latipov
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian DivisionRussian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia
  2. 2.Institute of General Genetics and CytologyAcademy of Sciences of KazakhstanAlmatyKazakhstan

Personalised recommendations