Piriformospora indica Alleviates Salinity by Boosting Redox Poise and Antioxidative Potential of Tomato
- 14 Downloads
More than 20% of irrigated land has been influenced by salt stress, decreasing crop production. In this research, we investigated the effect of different levels of salinity (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl) and the efficiency of Piriformospora indica on growth, biochemical traits, antioxidative defense system in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). NaCl stress reduced chlorophyll content, height and biomass of plants. Higher level of salinity (150 mM) declined the plant height by 22.65%, total dry weight by 56.44% and total chlorophyll by 44.34%, however, P. indica inoculation raised plant height by 43.47%, dry weight by 69.23% and total chlorophyll content by 48.09%. Salinity stress increased H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) level in leaves and roots tomato seedlings. However, P. indica inoculation reduced H2O2, MDA and superoxide anion and enhanced DPPH compared to non-inoculated plants at all NaCl levels. The total phenol and flavonoids increased with NaCl treatment. On the other hand, the total phenolic and flavonoid increased more in P. indica inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated ones. Moreover, inoculation of P. indica implicated noteworthy improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) activity in tomato upon salinity. Notably, colonization with P. indica significantly improved the content of reduced ascorbic acid (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and redox ratio in the tomato plants under salinity resulting in reduced redox state. Our findings confirmed that salinity had negative effect on tomato seedling; however, P. indica inoculation increased tolerance to salinity by improving the content of phenolic compounds, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes.
KeywordsSolanum lycopersicum Piriformospora indica antioxidative enzymes endophyte fungi NaCl stress non-enzymatic antioxidants tomato plants
reactive oxygen species
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 6.Jogawat, A., Saha, S., Bakshi, M., Dayaman, V., Kumar, M., Dua, M., Varma, A., Oelmüller, R., Tuteja, N., and Johri, A.K., Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress, Plant Signal. Behav., 2013, vol. 8. doi 10.4161/psb.26891Google Scholar
- 7.Waller, F., Achatz, B., Baltruschat, H., Fodor, J., Becker, K., Fischer, M., Heier, T., Hückelhoven, R., Neumann, C., von Wettstein, D., Franken, P., and Kogel, K.-H., The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica reprograms barley to salt-stress tolerance, disease resistance, and higher yield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2005, vol. 102, pp. 13 386–13 391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Bagheri, A.A., Saadatmand, S., Niknam, V., Nejadsatari, T., and Babaeizad, V., Effect of endophytic fungus, Piriformospora indica, on growth and activity of antioxidant enzymes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under salinity stress, Int. J. Adv. Biol. Biomed. Res., 2013, vol. 1, pp. 1337–1350.Google Scholar
- 18.Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., and Berset, C., Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity, LWT—Food Sci. Technol., 1995, vol. 28, pp. 25–30.Google Scholar
- 23.Nakano, Y. and Asada, K., Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts, Plant Cell Physiol., 1981, vol. 22, pp. 867–880.Google Scholar
- 24.Luck, H., Catalase, in Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Bergmeyer, H.U., Ed., New York: Academic, 1971, pp. 885–894.Google Scholar
- 25.Miyake, C. and Asada, K., Thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts and photoreduction of its primary oxidation product monodehydroascorbate radicals in thylakoids, Plant Cell Physiol., 1992, vol. 33, pp. 541–553.Google Scholar
- 28.Kohler, J., Hernández, J.A., Caravaca, F., and Roldán, A., Induction of antioxidant enzymes is involved in the greater effectiveness of a PGPR versus AM fungi with respect to increasing the tolerance of lettuce to severe salt stress, Environ. Exp. Bot., 2009, vol. 65, pp. 245–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Aroca, R., Ruiz-Lozano, J.M., Zamarreño, Á.M., Paz, J.A., García-Mina, J.M., Pozo, M.J., and López-Ráez, J.A., Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences strigolactone production under salinity and alleviates salt stress in lettuce plants, J. Plant Physiol., 2013, vol. 170, pp. 47–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar