Roles of ethylene and cytokinins in development of defense responses in Triticum aestivum plants infected with Septoria nodorum
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Effects of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, ET), which is a producer of ethylene, and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which inhibits ethylene binding with the corresponding receptors, on defense responses caused by the causal agent of leaf blotch (Septoria nodorum Berk.) in leaves of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) of cultivars contrast in the resistance to the pathogen were studied. After treatment with 1-MCP, an induction of wheat resistance to the disease, more prominent in the susceptible cv. Kazakhstanskaya 10 than in the resistant cv. Omskaya 35, was found. The rise in the resistance was accompanied by rise in zeatin content in leaves, enhanced generation of hydrogen peroxide (most likely, due to the decreased catalase activity and increased peroxidase activity), and accumulation of transcripts of marker genes of the salicylate signaling pathway (PR-1 and PR-2). On the contrary, in ET-treated plants, all the studied defense responses were inhibited, and the pathogen developed more intensively. The effect of ethylene on zeatin distribution in infected wheat leaves of the susceptible cv. Kazakhstanskaya 10 was also found. In the 1-MCP-treated wheat leaves, cytokinins were localized in mesophyll cells and cell walls. In the ET-treated leaves, cell walls were free of zeatin, and the hormone concentrated in developing hyphae of the pathogen. The results allow for the hypothesis that wheat plant resistance is controlled by antagonistic interaction of signaling pathways of salicylic acid and ethylene with participation of cytokinins.
KeywordsTriticum aestivum Septoria nodorum cytokinins ethylene hydrogen peroxide immunolocalization PR proteins resistance
- PR proteins
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