Effects of high temperature on photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, chloroplast ultrastructure, and antioxidant activities in fingered citron
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Effects of heat stress on the photosynthesis system and antioxidant activities in Fingered citron (Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis Swingle) were investigated. Two-year-old Fingered citron plants were exposed to different temperature (28, 35, 40, and 45°C) for 6 h; then the photosynthetic capacity, chlorophyll fluorescence, chloroplast ultrastructure, and antioxidant activities in the leaves were evaluated. Exposure to 40 and 45°C for 6 h resulted in a significant decrease in the photosynthetic rate (P n), carboxylation efficiency (CE), the maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and the light-saturated photosynthetic rate, which were related to the reduction of CO2 assimilation, inactivation of photosystem II and photosynthetic electron transport. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy showed chloroplast ultrastructural alterations, including their swelling, matrix zone expanding, and lamella structure loosening. Furthermore, heat stress, especially at 45°C, caused oxidative damage resulted from ROS accumulation in Fingered citron leaves accompanied by increases in activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. However, exposure to 35°C for 6 h or 40°C for 4 h had no significant influence on the photosynthetic capacity at all. The results suggest that Fingered citron plants show no heat injury when temperature is below 40°C.
KeywordsCitrus medica var. sarcodactylis heat stress photosynthesis chlorophyll fluorescence peroxidation chloroplast ultrastructure
maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II
the photosynthetic rate
photosynthetic photon density
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