Russian Journal of Plant Physiology

, Volume 59, Issue 4, pp 479–490 | Cite as

Mobile signals in day length-regulated flowering: Gibberellins, flowering locus T, and sucrose

  • R. W. KingEmail author


Despite low activity for stem growth, the gibberellins GA5 and GA6 act as long-day (LD) florigens in Lolium temulentum L. This claim is based on extensive evidence covering GA synthesis in LD in the induced leaf and their transport to the shoot apex where they act in a dose-dependent manner. GAs also act as a LD florigen in association with cold vernalization of L. perenne. In contrast, highly bioactive GA4 and, possibly, GA1 are important florigens in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. This species contrast reflects differences in GA deactivation, which is unimportant for Arabidopsis but dominant in L. temulentum. It is unclear if GAs participate in flowering responses of short-day (SD) species since it is LD, which up-regulate enzymes for GA biosynthesis. Sugars (sucrose) may also act directly as a florigen and, specifically, with increase in photosynthesis as in LD or when light intensity is increased in SD. In addition, in LD sucrose can indirectly cause flowering by up-regulating FT expression, the FT protein acting as a further leaf-to-apex transported florigen. Thus, there are not only multiple florigens but there can be complex interactions between the signaling pathways controlling production of these various florigens.


Arabidopsis Lolium temulentum flowering FT gibberellin GA synthesis and deactivation long day plants multiple florigens sucrose 



far-red light


Flowering Locus T




long day


short day


trinexapac ethyl


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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIRO Plant IndustryCanberra CityAustralia

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