Russian Journal of Plant Physiology

, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 126–132 | Cite as

Species-specific, seasonal, inter-annual, and historically-accumulated changes in foliar terpene emission rates in Phillyrea latifolia and Quercus ilex submitted to rain exclusion in the Prades Mountains (Catalonia)

  • J. Llusià
  • J. Peñuelas
  • G. A. Alessio
  • R. Ogaya
Research Papers

Abstract

Mediterranean vegetation emits large amounts of terpenes. We aimed to study the effects of the decreases in soil water availability forecast for the next decades by global circulation models and ecophysiological models on the terpene emissions by two widely distributed Mediterranean woody species, Phillyrea latifolia L. and Quercus ilex L. We subjected holm oak forest plots to an experimental soil drought of ca. 20% decrease in soil moisture by partial rainfall exclusion and runoff exclusion. We measured the emission rates throughout the seasons for two years with contrasting precipitation and soil moisture (16.6% average in 2003 vs. 6.4% as average in 2005). Among the detected volatile terpenes, only α-pinene and limonene were present in detectable quantities in all of the studied periods. Total terpene emitted ranged from practically zero (spring 2003) to 3.6 and 58.3 μg/(g dry wt h) (winter 2005 and summer 2003 for P. latifolia and Q. ilex, respectively). A clear seasonality was found in the emission rates (they were the highest in summer in both species) and also in the qualitative composition of the emission mix. Maximum emissions of α-pinene occurred in spring and maximum emissions of limonene in winter. Neither the inter-annual differences in water availability nor the rain exclusion treatment significantly affected the emissions in P. latifolia, but Q. ilex showed by 17% lower emissions during the drier second year of study, 2005, but more than two- and threefold increases with the drought treatment in summer 2003 and in summer 2005, respectively, showing historical accumulated effects. These results, which show increased monoterpene emission under the moderate drought produced by the treatment and decreased emission under the severe second year drought, and a much higher sensitivity to drought in Q. ilex than in P. latifolia, are useful in understanding the behavior of plant volatiles under Mediterranean conditions and in modeling future emission under changing climate conditions. They show that the usage of current models could lead to under- and overestimations of the emission under summer dry conditions, because most current algorithms are based on light and temperature only.

Keywords

Phillyrea latifoli Quercus ilex monoterpenes water stress isoprenoid emission 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Llusià, J. and Peñuelas, J., Changes in Terpene Content and Emission in Potted Mediterranean Woody Plants under Severe Drought, Can. J. Bot., 1998, vol. 76, pp. 1366–1373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Llusià, J. and Peñuelas, J., Seasonal Patterns of Terpene Content and Emission from Seven Mediterranean Woody Species in Field Conditions, Am. J. Bot., 2000, vol. 87, pp. 133–140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lusià, J., Peñuelas, J., Prieto, P., and Estiarte, M., Net Ecosystem Exchange and Whole Plant Isoprenoid Emissions by a Mediterranean Shrubland Exposed to Experimental Climate Change, Russ. J. Plant Physiol., 2009, vol. 56, pp. 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sanadze, G.A., Photobiosynthesis of Isoprene as an Example of Leaf Excretory Function in the Light of Contemporary Thermodynamics, Russ. J. Plant Physiol., 2010, vol. 57, pp. 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peñuelas, J. and Llusià, J., The Complexity of Factors Driving Volatile Organic Compound Emissions by Plants, Biol. Plant., 2001, vol. 44, pp. 481–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    IPCC. Climate Change: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group: 1. Hougton Third Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Dung, J.T., Griggs, Y., Noguer, D.J., Linden, M., Dui, P.J., Maskell, X., and Johson, K., Eds., Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sabaté, S., Gracia, C., and Sánchez, A., Likely Effects of Climate Change on Growth of Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica Forests in The Mediterranean Region, Forest Ecol. Manag., 2002, vol. 162, pp. 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hodges, J. and Lorio, P., Moisture Stress and Xylem Oleoresin in Loblolly Pine, Forest Sci., 1975, vol. 21, pp. 283–290.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kainulainen, P., Oksanen, J., Palomäki, V., Holopainen, J.K., and Holopainen, T., Effect of Drought and Waterlogging Stress on Needle Monoterpene of Picea abies, Can. J. Bot., 1991, vol. 70, pp. 1613–1616.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bertin, N. and Staudt, M., Effect of Water Stress on Monoterpene Emission from Young Potted Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) Trees, Oecologia, 1996, vol. 107, pp. 456–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Peñuelas, J. and Llusià, J., Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Water Supply and Seasonality on Terpene Content and Emission by Rosmarinus officinalis, J. Chem. Ecol., 1997, vol. 23, pp. 979–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Peñuelas, J. and Llusià, J., Linking Photorespiration, Monoterpenes and Thermotolerance in Quercus, New Phytol., 2002, vol. 155, pp. 227–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holzke, C., Dindorf, T., Kesselmeier, J., Kuhn, U., and Koppmann, R., Terpene Emissions from European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.): Pattern and Emission Behaviour over Two Vegetation Periods, J. Atmos. Chem., 2006, vol. 55, pp. 81–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rennenberg, H., Loreto, F., Polle, A., Brilli, F., Fares, S., Beniwal, R.S., and Gessler, A., Physiological Responses of Forest Trees to Heat and Drought, Plant Biol., 2006, vol. 8, pp. 556–571.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Loreto, F., Ciccioli, P., Cecinato, A., Brancaleoni, E., Frattoni, M., and Tricoli, D., Influence of Environmental Factors and Air Composition on the Emission of α-Pinene from Quercus ilex Leaves, Plant Physiol., 1996, vol. 110, pp. 267–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tingey, D.T., Manning, M., Grothaus, L.C., and Burns, W.F., Influence of Light and Temperature on Monoterpene Emission Rates from Slash Pine, Plant Physiol., 1980, vol. 65, pp. 797–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vallat, A., Gu, H., and Silvia, D., How Rainfall, Relative Humidity, and Temperature Influence Volatile Emissions from Apple Trees In Situ, Phytochemistry, 2005, vol. 66, pp. 1540–1550.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ogaya, R. and Peñuelas, J., Comparative Field Study of Quercus ilex and Phillyrea latifolia: Photosynthetic Response to Experimental Drought Conditions, Environ. Exp. Bot., 2003, vol. 50, pp. 137–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ogaya, R. and Peñuelas, J., Contrasting Foliar Responses to Drought in Quercus ilex and Phillyrea latifolia, Biol. Plant., 2006, vol. 50, pp. 373–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ogaya, R. and Peñuelas, J., Tree Growth, Mortality, and Above-Ground Biomass Accumulation in a Holm Oak Forest under a Five-Year Experimental Field Drought, Plant Ecol., 2007, vol. 198, pp. 291–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Peñuelas, J., Filella, I., Llusià, J., Siscart, D., and Piñol, J., Comparative Field Study of Spring and Summer Leaf Gas Exchange and Photobiology of the Mediterranean Trees Quercus ilex and Phillyrea latifolia, J. Exp. Bot., 1998, vol. 49, pp. 229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alessio, G.A., Peñuelas, J., de Lillis, M., and Llusià, J., Implications of Foliar Terpene Content and Hydration on Leaf Flammability of Quercus ilex and Pinus halepensis, Plant Biol., 2007, vol. 10, pp. 123–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alessio, G.A., Peñuelas, J., Llusià, J., Ogaya, R., Estiarte, M., and de Lillis, M., Influence of Foliar Hydration and Terpene Content and Emission on Flammability of the Dominant Species in a Mediterranean Shrubland and a Holm Oak Forest, Int. J. Wildland Fire, 2007, vol. 17, pp. 274–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thompson, A.M., The Oxidizing Capacity of the Earth’s Atmosphere: Probable Past and Future Changes, Science, 1992, vol. 256, pp. 1157–1165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peñuelas, J. and Llusià, J., BVOCs: Plant Defense against Climate Warming? Trends Plant Sci., 2003, vol. 8, pp. 105–109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Llusià
    • 1
  • J. Peñuelas
    • 1
  • G. A. Alessio
    • 1
  • R. Ogaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Global Ecology-CEAB-CSIC-CREAF Unit-Center for Ecological Research and Forestry ApplicationsAutonomous University of BarselonaBellaterra, BarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations