Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation

, Volume 19, Issue 7, pp 687–776 | Cite as

Fusulinids and stratigraphy of the Carboniferous and Permian in Iran

  • E. Ja. Leven
  • M. N. Gorgij


This monograph is an overview of the Carboniferous-Permian stratigraphy in Iran based on our recent research on fusulinids combined with relevant data from literature. In the first part of the monograph, we consider the Carboniferous and Permian stratigraphic scales used to characterize and correlate the sections studied. The second part is devoted to description of Carboniferous and Permian deposits in the principal tectonic structures of Iran, i.e., in the Alborz, Yazd, Kalmard, Tabas, Sanandaj-Sirjan and Zagros blocks, and correlation of their sections. Fusulinid assemblages, their comparison with concurrent assemblages of the East European platform and degree of endemism are described in the third part. In the concluding part, we discuss certain trends in the distribution of fusulinids and some problems of their stratigraphy that can be inferred from the data analyzed. The monograph includes 11 text figures, a correlation chart, and a summary table of fusulinid taxa (453 species and subspecies of 107 genera and subgenera) discovered in Iran. Species most characteristic of fusulinid assemblages described in the work are figured in 32 plates.


stratigraphy fusulinids Carboniferous Permian Iran 


  1. Aghanabati, A., Étude geologique de la region de Kalmard (W. Tabas). Report Geol. Surv. Iran, 1977, no. 35, pp. 1–230.Google Scholar
  2. Alavi, M., Tectonic Map of the Middle East, Geol. Surv. Iran, 1991.Google Scholar
  3. Angiolini, L., Stephenson, M.H., and Leven, E.Ja. Corre-lation of the Lower Permian Surface Saiwan Formation and Subsurface Haushi Limestone, Central Oman, GeoArabia, 2006, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 17–38.Google Scholar
  4. Arefifard, S. and Davydov, V.I., Permian in Kalmard, Shotori and Shirgesht Areas, Central-Eastern Iran, Permophiles, 2004, no. 44, pp. 28–32.Google Scholar
  5. Assereto, R., The Paleozoic Formations in Central Elburz (Iran) (Preliminary Note), Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 1963, vol. 69, pp. 503–543.Google Scholar
  6. Baghbani, D., The Permian Sequence in the Abadeh Region, Central Iran, in Contributions to Eurasian Geology, Koroteev, A.V., Ed., Occasional Publ. Earth. Sci. Res. Inst., Univ. South Carolina, 1993, N.S. 9B, pp. 7–22.Google Scholar
  7. Baghbani, D., Correlation Charts of Selected Permian Strata from Iran, Permophiles, 1997, no. 30, pp. 24–25.Google Scholar
  8. Boncheva, I., Bahrami, A., Yazdi, M., and Toraby, H., Carboniferous Conodont Biostratigraphy and Late Paleozoic Depositional Evolution in South Central Iran (Asadabad Section-SE Isgahan), Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 2007, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 329–356.Google Scholar
  9. Bozorgnia, F., Paleozoic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of Central and East Albourz Mountains, Iran, Tehran: National Iranian Oil Company, 1973.Google Scholar
  10. Brenckle, P. L., Gaetani, M., Angiolini, L., and Bahrammanesh, M., Refinements in Biostratigraphy, Chronostratigraphy, and Paleogeography of the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) Mobarak Formation, Alborz Mountains, Iran, GeoArabia, 2009, vol. 14, no. 3, pp 43–78.Google Scholar
  11. Chuvashov, B.I., Leven, E.Ja., Davydov, V.I., et al., Carboniferous/Permian Boundary Beds of the Urals, Pre-Urals and Central Asia, Moscow: Nauka, 1986.Google Scholar
  12. Davydov, V.I., Middle/Upper Carboniferous Boundary: The Problems of Definition and Correlation, in Abstracts and Program of XIII Int. Congress on Carboniferous and Permian, 1995, Krakow, Poland, pp. 28–29.Google Scholar
  13. Davydov, V.I. and Arefifard, S., Permian Fusulinid Fauna of Peri-Gondwanan affinity from the Kalmard region, East-Central Iran and Its Significance for Tectonics and Paleogeography, Palaeontologia Electronica, 2007, 10.2.10A,
  14. Douglas, J.A., The Carboniferous and Permian Faunas of South Iran and Iranian Baluchestan, Mem. Geol. Surv. India., Palaeontol. Indica N. S., 1950, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1–57.Google Scholar
  15. Gaetani, M. and Leven, E.Ja., Permian Stratigraphy and Fusulinids from Rosh Gol (Chitral, E, Hindu Kush), Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 1993, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 307–326.Google Scholar
  16. Gaetani M., Angiolini, L., Garzanti E., et al., Permian Stratigraphy in the Northern Karakorum, Pakistan, Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 1995, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 107–152.Google Scholar
  17. Gaetani, M., Angiolini, L., Ueno, K., et al., Pennsylvanian-Early Triassic Stratigraphy in the Alborz Mountains (Iran), in South Caspian to Central Iran Basins, Brunet, M.F., Wilmsen, M., and Granath, J.W., Eds., Spec. Publ. Geol. Soc. London, 2009, vol. 312, pp. 79–128.Google Scholar
  18. Glaus, M., Trias und Oberperm im zentralen Elburs (Persien), Eclog. Geol. Helvet., 1964, vol. 57, pp. 497–508.Google Scholar
  19. Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, O.G., and Smith, A.G., A Geologic Time Scale 2004, London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Henderson, Ch.M., Jin, Y., Wardlaw, B.R., and Mei, Sh., Conodont Succession in Nashui/Luodian Section, South China, and Its Significance in Correlation of Cisuralian and Guadalupian Conodont and Fusulinacean zones, in XIV ICCP, Pander Soc. Can. Paleontol. Conf., Programme with Abstracts, 1999, p. 67.Google Scholar
  21. Iranian-Japanese Research Group. The Permian and the Lower Triassic Systems in Abadeh Region, Central Iran, Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyoto Univ., Ser. Geol. Mineral., 1981, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 1–133.Google Scholar
  22. Isakova, T.N., Fusulinids, in Middle Carboniferous of Moscow Syneclise (Southern Part), Vol. 2, Biostratigraphy, Alekseev, A.S. and Shik, S.M., Eds., Moscow: Nauchnyi Mir, 2001, pp. 10–32.Google Scholar
  23. Ivanov, A.P., Middle and Upper Carboniferous of Moscow Syneclise, Byul. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol., 1926, vol. 4, nos. 1–2, pp. 133–176.Google Scholar
  24. Jenny-Deshusses, C., Le Permien de l’Elbourz Central et Oriental (Iran): Stratigraphie et micropaléontologie (foraminifères et algues), Thèse no. 2103, Univ. de Genève, 1983, pp. 1–265.Google Scholar
  25. Jenny, J. and Stampfli, G., Lithostratigraphie du Permien de l’Elbourz oriental en Iran, Eclog. Geol. Helvet., 1978, vol. 71, pp. 551–580.Google Scholar
  26. Jenny, J., Jenny-Deshusses, C., Stampfli, G., and Lys, M., La formation de Gheselghaleh, nouvelle unite lithologique du Carbonifère de l’Elbourz oriental (Iran), Eclog. Geol. Helvet., 1978, vol.71, pp. 297–312.Google Scholar
  27. Jin, Y., Wardlaw, B.R., Glenister, B.F., and Kotlyar, G.V., Permian Chronostratigraphic Subdivisions, Episodes, 1997, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 10–15.Google Scholar
  28. Kahler, F., Iranishe Fusuliniden, Jahrb. Geol. B.-A., 1974, vol. 117, pp. 75–107.Google Scholar
  29. Kahler, F., Die Fusuliniden der Dorud Formation im Djajerud-Tal nördlich von Teheran (Iran), Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 1976, vol. 82, pp. 439–466.Google Scholar
  30. Kahler, F., Bemerkenswerte Fusuliniden-Funde im ostmediterranen und iranischen Raum, N. Jahrb. Palaont. Mh. (Stuttgart), 1977, vol. 4, pp. 199–216.Google Scholar
  31. Kalantari, A., Biostratigraphy of Permian Deposits in Zagros Mountain, in Treatise on the Geology of Iran, Geol. Surv. Iran, 1995, pp. 8–95 (in Persian with English summary).Google Scholar
  32. Kobayashi, F. and Ishii, Ken-ichi, Permian Fusulinaceans of the Surmaq Formation in the Abadeh Region, Central Iran, Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 2003, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 307–337.Google Scholar
  33. Korte, Ch., Kozur, H.W., Joachimsli, M.M., et al., Carbon, Sulfur, Oxygen and Strontium Isotope Records, Organic Geochemistry and Biostratigraphy across the Permian/Triassic boundary in Abadeh, Iran, Int. J. Earth Sci. (Geol. Rundshau), 2004, vol. 93, pp. 565–581.Google Scholar
  34. Kozur, H.W., Pelagic Uppermost Permian and Permian-Triassic Boundary Conodonts of Iran. Part II: Investigated Section and Evaluation of the Conodont Faunas, Hallesches Jahrb. Geowiss., 2005, vol. 19, pp. 49–86.Google Scholar
  35. Kotlyar, G.V., Zakharov, Yu.D., Kropatcheva, G.S., et al., Evolution of the Latest Permian Biota. Midian regional stage in the USSR, Leningrad: Nauka, 1989.Google Scholar
  36. Kulagina, E.I., Biostratigraphy of the Lower-Middle Carboniferous in the Southern Urals and Southeastern Russian Platform, Implication of Foraminifers, Extended Abstract of Doctor. Sci. (Geol.-Mineral.) Dissertation, Mosk. Gos. Univ., Moscow, 2006, pp. 1–46.Google Scholar
  37. Kulagina, E.I., Pazukhin, V.N., Kochetkova, N.M., et al., The Stratotype and Key Section of the Bashkirian Stage (Carboniferous) in the Southern Urals, Ufa: Gilem, 2001.Google Scholar
  38. Kulagina, E.I. and Sinitsyna Z.A., Evolution of the Pseudostaffellidae in the Bashkirian Stage (Middle Carboniferous), Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 2003, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 213–224.Google Scholar
  39. Leonova, T.V. and Dmitriev, V.Yu., Lower Permian Ammonoids of the Southeast Pamir,, Moscow: Nauka, 1989.Google Scholar
  40. Leven, E.Ja., On the Phylogeny of Higher Fusulinids and Subdivision of Upper Permian Deposits of the Tethys, Vopr. Mikropaleontol., 1963, no. 7, pp. 57–70.Google Scholar
  41. Leven, E.Ja., To the Problem of Systematics of the Subfamily Eofusulininae, Paleontol. Zh., 1979, no. 2, pp. 139–142.Google Scholar
  42. Leven, E.Ja., Explanatory Note on the Stratigraphic Scale of the Tethyan Permian, Leningrad: VSEGEI, 1980a.Google Scholar
  43. Leven, E.Ja., The Yakhtashian Stage of the Permian System: Substantiation, Characteristic and Correlation, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol., 1980b, no. 8, pp. 50–65.Google Scholar
  44. Leven, E.Ja., The Bolorian Stage of the Permian System: Establishment, Characteristic and Correlation, Int. Geol. Rev., 1980c, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 587–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leven, E.Ja., Volume and Characteristic of the Kubergandian Stage of the Permian (Pamir), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol., 1981, no. 4, pp. 79–90.Google Scholar
  46. Leven, E.Ja., Early Permian Fusulinids from the Central Pamir, Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 1993a, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 151–198.Google Scholar
  47. Leven, E.Ja., Phylogeny of Sumatrinids and Zonation of the Permian, Murgabian and Midian Stages, Paleontol. Zh., 1993b, no. 3, pp. 23–29.Google Scholar
  48. Leven, E.Ja., The Mid-Early Permian Regression and Transgression of the Tethys. Pangea: Global environments and resources, Canadian Soc. Petrol. Geologists, 1994, mem. 17, pp. 233–239.Google Scholar
  49. Leven E.Ja., Stratigr. Geol. Korrelatsya, 1996a, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 20–31 [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation (Engl. Transl.), vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 540–551].Google Scholar
  50. Leven, E.Ja., The Midian Stage of the Permian and its boundaries, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 1996b, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 540–551.Google Scholar
  51. Leven, E.Ja., Permian Stratigraphy and Fusulinids of Afghanistan with Their Paleogeographic and Paleotectonic Implication, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 1997, no. 316, pp. 1–138.Google Scholar
  52. Leven, E.Ja., Permian Fusulinid Assemblages and Stratigraphy of the Transcaucasia, Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 1998, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 299–328.Google Scholar
  53. Leven, E.Ja., On Possibility of Using the Global Permian Stage Scale in the Tethyan Region, Stratigr. Geol. Korrelyatsiya, 2001, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 118–131 [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation (Engl. Transl.), vol. 9, no. 2, pp. ].Google Scholar
  54. Leven, E.Ja., The Permian Stratigraphy and Fusulinids of the Tethys, Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 2003, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 267–280.Google Scholar
  55. Leven, E.Ja., Problems of Nomenclature and Composition of the Genus Pseudofusulina (Dunbar et Skinner, 1931) and Approach to Solving Them, Geol. Geofiz., 2008, vol. 49, nos. 10–11, pp. 86–88.Google Scholar
  56. Leven, E.Ja., The Upper Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian of the Western Tethys: Fusulinids, Stratigraphy, Biogeography, Moscow: GEOS, 2009.Google Scholar
  57. Leven, E.Ja., Permian Fusulinids of the East Hindu Kush and West Karakorum (Pakistan), Stratigr. Geol. Korrelyatsiya, 2010, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 3–15 [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation (Engl. Transl.), vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 105–117].Google Scholar
  58. Leven, E.Ja., Leonova, N.B., and Dmitriev, V.Yu., The Permian System in the Darvaz-Transalay Zone of Pamir: Fusulines, Ammonoids, Stratigraphy, Moscow: Nauka, 1992.Google Scholar
  59. Leven, E.Ja. and Davydov, V.I., Stratigraphy and Fusulinids of the Kasimovian and Lower Gzhelian (Upper Carboniferous) in the Southwestern Darvaz (Pamir), Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 2001, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 3–46.Google Scholar
  60. Leven, E.Ja. and Taheri, A., Carboniferous-Permian Stratigraphy and Fusulinids of East Iran. Gzhelian and Asselian Deposits of the Ozbak-Kuh Region, Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 2003, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 399–415.Google Scholar
  61. Leven, E.Ja. and Vaziri, H.M., Carboniferous-Permian Stratigraphy and Fusulinids of Eastern Iran: The Permian in the Bage-Vang Section (Shirgesht Area), Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Stratigr., 2004, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 441–465.Google Scholar
  62. Leven, E.Ja. and Gorgij, M.N., The Pennsylvanian-Permian of the Central and East Iran: Anarak, Ozbak-Kuh and Shirgesht Areas, Permophiles, 2005, vol. 46, pp. 20–21.Google Scholar
  63. Leven, E.Ja. and Bogoslovskaya, M.F., The Roadian Stage of the Permian and Problems of Its Global Correlation, Stratigr. Geol. Correlatsya, 2006a, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 67–78 [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation (Engl. Transl.), vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 164–173].Google Scholar
  64. Leven, E.Ja. and Gorgij, M.N., Upper Carboniferous-Permian Stratigraphy and Fusulinids from the Anarak Region, Central Iran, Russ. J. Earth Sci., 2006b, vol. 8, ES2002. doi: 10.2205/2006ES000200, pp. 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Leven, E.Ja. and Gorgij, M.N., Gzhelian Fusulinids First Discovered in Central Iran, Stratigr. Geol. Korrelyatsiya, 2006c, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 19–29 [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation (Engl. Transl.), vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 19–29].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Leven, E.Ja., Davydov, V.I., and Gorgij, M.N., Pennsylvanian Stratigraphy and Fusulinids of Central and Eastern Iran, Palaeontologia Electronica, 9.1.1A, 2006d.
  67. Leven, E.Ja. and Gorgij, M.N., Fusulinids of the Khan Formation (Kalmard Region, Eastern Iran) and Some Problems of Their Paleobiogeography, Russ. J. Earth Sci., 2007a, vol. 9, ES1004. doi: 10.2205/2007 ES000219.2007, pp. 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leven, E.Ja., Reimers, A.N., and Kozur, H.W., First Finds of Permian Conodonts in Eastern Iran and Once Again on the Guadalupian Series Base in Permian Sections of the Tethyan Realm, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 2007b, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–66.,Gor.2009 Tangale-Moht.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Leven, E.Ja. and Gorgij, M.N., New Data About the Permian Section and Fusulinids in the Kalmard Area (Central Iran, Yazd Province), Permophiles, 2008a. V. 51, pp. 22–27.Google Scholar
  70. Leven, E.Ja. and Gorgij, M.N., Bolorian and Kubergandian Stages of the Permian in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone of Iran, Stratigr. Geol. Korrelatsya, 2008b, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 3–14 [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation (Engl. Transl.), 2008b, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 455–466].Google Scholar
  71. Leven, E.Ja. and Gorgij, M.N., New Fusulinids of the Moscovian Stage Found in Iran, Stratigr. Geol. Korrelatsya, 2008c, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 40–56 [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation (Engl. Transl.), vol.16, no. 4, pp. 164–173].Google Scholar
  72. Leven, E.Ja. and Gorgij, M.N., Section of Permian Deposits and Fusulinids in the Halvan Mountains, Yazd Province, Central Iran, Stratigr. Geol. Korrelatsya, 2009, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 47–65 [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation (Engl. Transl.), vol.17, no. 2, pp. 155–172].Google Scholar
  73. Leven, E.Ja. and Gorgij, M.N., Kalaktash and Halvan fusulinid assemblages in the Padeh and Sang-Variz Sections (Halvan Mountains, Yazd Province, Central Iran), Stratigr. Geol. Korrelatsya, 2011a, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 20–39 [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation (Engl. Transl.), vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 141–159].Google Scholar
  74. Leven, E.Ja. and Gorgij, M.N., First Record of Gzhelian and Asselian Fusulinids from the Vazhnan Formation (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone of Iran), Startigr. Geol. Korrelaion, 2011b, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 16–31 [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation (Engl. Transl.), vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 486–501].Google Scholar
  75. Leven, E.Ja., Naugolnykh, S.V, and Gorgij, M.N., New finds of Permian Fossils in the Central Iran (the Kalmard Block) and Their Significance for Correlation of the Tethyan, Uralian and West European Scales, Riv. Ital. Paleontol. Startigr., 2011, vol. 117, no. 3.Google Scholar
  76. Loeblich, A.R. and Tappan, H., Foraminiferal Genera and Their Classification, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1987.Google Scholar
  77. Lys, M., Stampfli, G., and Jenny, J., Biostratigraphie du Carbonifèré et du Permien de l’Elbourz oriental (Iran du N. E.), Notes Lab. Palèont. Univ. Genève, 1978, no. 10, pp. 63–78.Google Scholar
  78. Mahavi, M. and Vaziri, S.H. Permian Conodonts (Artinskian-Early Djulfian) from Ruteh and Nesen Formations in Central Alborz, North Iran, Permophiles, 2009, no. 53, pp. 29–30.Google Scholar
  79. Mei, Sh., Jin, Y., and Wardlaw, B.R., Conodont Succession of the Guadalupian-Lopingian Boundary Strata in Laibin of Guangxi, China and West Texas, USA, Paleoworld, 1998, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 53–66.Google Scholar
  80. Menning, M., Alexeev, A.S., Chuvashov, B.I. et al. Global Time Scale and Regional Stratigraphic References Scales of Central and West Europe, East Europe, Tethys, South China, and North America as Used in the Devonian-Carboniferous-Permian Correlation Chart 2003 (DCP 2003), Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 2006, vol. 240, pp. 318–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Miklukho-Maclay, A.D., Stage Subdivisions of Marine Permian Deposits in the Southern USSR, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1958, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 175–178.Google Scholar
  82. Möller, V., Die spiral-gewundenen Foraminiferen des russischen Kohlenkalks, Mem. Acad. Imper. Sci. St.-Petersbourg Ser. 7, 1878, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1–147.Google Scholar
  83. Möller, V., Die Foraminiferen des russischen Kohlenkalks, Mem. Acad. Imper. Sci. St.-Petersbourg Ser. 7, 1879, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1–131.Google Scholar
  84. Partoazar, H., Permian Deposits in Iran, in Treatise on the Geology of Iran, Geol. Surv. Iran, 1995, vol. 22, pp. 1–370 (in Persian with English summary).Google Scholar
  85. Putrja, F.S., Stratigraphy and Foraminifers of the Middle Carboniferous Deposits of the Eastern Donbass, Tr. VNIGRI, Nov. Ser., 1956, vol. 8, no. 98, pp. 333–532.Google Scholar
  86. Putrja, F.S. and Leontovich, G.E., To Study of the Middle Carboniferous Fusulinids in Saratov Area at the Volga River, Byul. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol., 1948, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1–45.Google Scholar
  87. Rauser-Chernousova, D.M., The Upper Paleozoic Foraminifera of the Samara Bend and the Trans-Volga Region, Tr. Geol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1938, no. 7, pp. 69–167.Google Scholar
  88. Rauser-Chernousova, D.M., Stratigraphy of the Upper Carboniferous and Artinskian Stage in Western Flank of the Urals with Data on Fusulinid Fauna, Tr. Inst. Geol. Nauk AN SSSR, 1940, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 37–101.Google Scholar
  89. Rauser-Chernousova, D.M., New Data on Stratigraphy of Upper Carboniferous of the Oka-Tsna Well, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1941, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 434–436.Google Scholar
  90. Rauser-Chernousova, D.M., Stratigraphy of Upper Carboniferous and Artinskian Deposits of the Bashkirian Cis-Urals, Tr. Geol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Geol. Ser., 1949, vol. 105, no. 35, pp. 3–21.Google Scholar
  91. Rauser-Chernousova, D.M. and Reitlinger, E.A., Biostratigraphic Ranges of the Middle Carboniferous Foraminifers in the Moscow Depression, in Regional’naya stratigrafiya SSSR (Regional Stratigraphy of the USSR), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1954, vol. 2, pp. 7–120.Google Scholar
  92. Rauser-Chernousova, D.M. and Scherbovich, S.F., Schwagerinids from European Part of the USSR, Tr. Geol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Geol. Ser., 1949, vol. 105, no. 35, pp. 61–117.Google Scholar
  93. Rauser-Chernousova, D.M., Bensh, F.R., Vdovenko, M.V., et al., Spravochnik po sistematike foraminifer paleozoya (endotiroidy, fusulinoidy (Reference-Book on Systematics of Paleozoic Foraminifera) (Endothyroida, Fusulinoida)), Moscow: Nauka, 1996.Google Scholar
  94. Rauser-Chernousova, D.M., Kireeva, G.D., Leontovich, G.E. et al., Srednekamennougol’nye fuzulinidy Russkoi platformy i sopredel’nykh oblastei (Middle Carboniferous Fusulinids of the Russian Platform and Neighboring Regions), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1951.Google Scholar
  95. Reimers, A.N., Leven, E.Ja., Rasskazova, N.B. New Finds of Permian Conodonts in Iran, Permophiles, 2008a, no. 51, p. 27.Google Scholar
  96. Reimers, A.N., Leven E.Ja., Alekseev A.S., and Rasskazova N.V. New Finds of Conodonts in Carboniferous/Permian Sections of Central Iran (Preliminary Results), Geol. Geofiz., 2008b, vol. 49, nos. 10–11, pp. 151–152.Google Scholar
  97. Remizova, S.T., Fusulinoidy Timana (evolutsiya, biostratigrafiya i paleobiogeografiya (Fusulinids of Timan: Evolution, Biostratigraphy and Paleobiogeography), Yekaterinburg: Ural. Otd. RAN, 2004.Google Scholar
  98. Rostotsev, K.O. and Azarian, N.R., Paleozoic-Mesozoic Boundary in the Transcaucasia and the Upper Permian New Stage, Soviet. Geol., 1974, no. 4, pp. 72–82.Google Scholar
  99. Rozovskaya, S.E., On Some Species of Middle Carboniferous Fusulinids from Moscow Depression, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1941, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 190–192.Google Scholar
  100. Rozovskaya, S.E., Rod Triticites, ego razvitie i stratigraficheskoe znachenie (Genus Triticites, Its Development and Stratigraphic Significance), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1950.Google Scholar
  101. Rozovskaya, S.E., Fusulinids and Biostratigraphy of the Upper Carboniferous Deposits of the Samara Bend, Tr. Geol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1958, no. 13, pp. 57–120.Google Scholar
  102. Ruttner, A. and Stöcklin, J. Foreword in Contributions to the Paleontology of East Iran, Rep. Geol. Surv. Iran, 1966, no. 6, pp. 2–5.Google Scholar
  103. Ruttner, A., Nabavi, M., and Hajian, J. Geology of the Shirgesht Area (Tabas Area, East Iran), Rep. Geol. Surv. Iran, 1968, no. 4, pp. 1–133.Google Scholar
  104. Ruzhenzev, V.E. Verkhnekamennougol’nye ammonity Urala (Upper Carboniferous Ammonoids of the Urals), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1950.Google Scholar
  105. Schellwien, E., Monographie der Fusulinen. Teil 1: Die Fusulinen des russisch-arktischen Meeresgebietes, Palaeontographica, 1908, vol. 55, pp. 145–194.Google Scholar
  106. Schenck, H.G., Childs, T.S., Hedberg C., et al., Stratigraphic Nomenclature, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 1941, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2195–2202.Google Scholar
  107. Shamov, D.F. Geology of the Isimbai Oil Fields, Soviet. Geol., 1940, no. 11, pp. 6–20.Google Scholar
  108. Sharkovski, M., Susov, M., Krivyakin, B., Geology of the Anarak Area (Central Iran), Explanatory Text of the Anarak Quadrangle Map, Rep. Geol. Surv. Iran, 1984, no.19, pp. 1–31.Google Scholar
  109. Stampfli, G. Etude gélogique génerale de l’Elbourz oriental au sud de Conbad-e-Qabus, Iran N-E, Thése doctorale, Université de Genève, 1978, no. 1868, pp. 1–315.Google Scholar
  110. Stampfli, G.M., Borel, G.D., Cavazza, W., et al. Palaeotectonic and Palaeogeographic Evolution of the Western Tethys and Peri-Tethyan Domain (IGCP Project 369), Episodes, 2001, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 222–228.Google Scholar
  111. Stepanov, D.L., Carboniferous Stratigraphy of Iran, in VI Congress Stratigr. and Geol. Carbon, 1971, Compte Rendu, vol. 4, pp. 1505–1517.Google Scholar
  112. Stepanov, D.L., Golshani, F., and Stöcklin, J., Upper Permian and Permian-Triassic Boundary in North Iran, Rep. Geol. Surv. Iran, 1969, no. 12, pp. 1–72.Google Scholar
  113. Stöcklin, J. Stratigraphic Lexicon of Iran. Part 1: Central, North, and East Iran, Rep. Geol. Surv. Iran, 1971, no. 18, pp. 1–338.Google Scholar
  114. Stöcklin, J., Eftekhar-nezhad J., and Hushmand-zadeh, A., Geology of the Shotory Range (Tabas Area, East Iran), Rep. Geol. Surv. Iran, 1965, no. 3, pp. 1–69.Google Scholar
  115. Suleimanov I.S., New Species of the Genus Rugosofusulina Rauser, Tr. Geol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Geol., 1949, vol. 105, no. 35, pp. 44–60.Google Scholar
  116. Taraz, H. Geology of the Surmaq-Deh Bid Area, Abadeh Region, Central Iran, Rep. Geol. Surv. Iran, 1974, no. 37, pp. 1–148.Google Scholar
  117. Vachard, D., Iran, in The Carboniferous of the Word, Vol. III: The Former USSR, Mongolia, Middle Eastern Platform, Afghanistan, and Iran, Inst. Tecnológico GeoMinero de Espana, 1996, pp. 491–513.Google Scholar
  118. Vaziri, S.H., Lithostratigraphy and Microbiostratigraphy (Foraminifera) of the Permian Sequence in Northern Tehran, Central Alborz, North Iran, in The Fifth International Conference on Environmental Micropaleontology, Microbiology and Meiobenthology, Univ. of Madras, India. 2008, pp. 339–344.Google Scholar
  119. Vaziri, S.H., Yao, A., and Kuwahara K., Lithofacies and Microbiofacies (Foraminifers and Radiolarians) of the Permian Sequence in the Shalamzar Area, Central Alborz, North Iran, J. Geosciences, Osaka City Univ., 2005, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 39–69.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Sistan and Baluchestan UniversityZahedanIran

Personalised recommendations