Effectiveness of Different Training Programs for Physical Performance Maintenance under the Condition of Low Motor Activity
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Investigations made by the World Health Organization have shown that lack of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle are among ten major causes for death and disability. Typically, studies of the negative effects of reduced physical activity and their prevention face difficulties of providing standard conditions. These issues were obviated successfully in the Mars-500 experiment on simulation of a space exploration mission. The sample of subjects consisted of six volunteers from Russia, France, Italy, and China, who were isolated in a limited space for 520 days. To prevent the negative effects of low physical activity, the volunteers performed resistive and cyclic exercises in different periods of isolation. The study was designed with two pauses in the training program. Physical performance was evaluated with an incremental loading test, maximal voluntary effort test (Russian–Austrian MDS resistive exercise system), and PWC-170 (bicycle ergometer). The level of physical performance of the subjects in this experiment never degraded to below baseline values. The proposed training system comprising different kinds of exercise ensured stability or improvement physical performance as compared with the baseline level.
Keywordslong-term isolation resistive exercise reduced physical activity physical performance cyclic training
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