Human Physiology

, Volume 43, Issue 7, pp 793–801 | Cite as

Nutritional Status in the Experiment with 105-Day Isolation as the First Phase of the Mars-500 Project

  • A. N. Agureev
  • B. V. Afonin
  • E. A. Sedova
  • A. A. Solovieva
  • V. A. Valuev
  • L. A. Sidorenko


In a 105-day experiment simulating crew life in a interplanetary spaceship, shifts in the nutritional status were assessed in six volunteersthat differed in the body weight index, basal metabolic rate, attitude to the proposed diet, physical exercise, and workload. The results of the investigation showed that hard physical work under the conditions of the experiment led to the formation of the nutritional status against the background of more intensive basal metabolism, elevated metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, and their increased mobilization from fat depot. Food ration, though it was sufficient to sustain health and fairly high calorie, did not fully meet individual taste preferences of some crewmembers and energy needs for physical activities. Under these conditions, heavy workloads required mobilization of lipids from fat depot and reducedthe hepatic detoxification and metabolic capacities. Self-limitation of eating protein-rich desserts led to a relative deficiency of protein intake. These changes in the diet were the reason why four out of six test subjects reduced their basal metabolism and lost body mass. The recovery of metabolism and slowdown of the body weight loss were achieved under these conditions by supplementing meals with digestible proteincontaining products.


space flight spaceship vehicle nutritional status diet body mass basal metabolism hypokinesia glucose lipids liver 13С-metacetyne test 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dobrovol’skii, V.F. and Agureev, A.N., Analysis of the nutritional status of space crew, Vopr. Pitan., 1999, nos. 5–6, pp. 16–19.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agureev, A.N., Kalandarov, S., and Vasil’eva, V.F., Nutrition of crews of long-term missions on the International Space Station, Aviakosm. Ekol. Med., 2004, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 19–23.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Agureev, A.N., Kloeris, V.L., Zvart, S.A., and Smit, S.M., Nutrition system, in Kosmicheskaya biologiya i meditsina. Tom 5. Rossiisko-amerikanskoe sotrudnichestvo v oblasti kosmicheskoi biologii i meditsiny (Space Biology and Medicine, Vol. 5: U.S. and Russian Cooperation in Space Biology and Medicine), Moscow: Nauka, 2009, pp. 477–499.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smirnov, K.V., Pishchevye i gipokineziya (Digestion and Hypokinesia), Moscow: Meditsina, 1990.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smirnov, K.V. and Ugolev, A.M., Digestion and absorption, in Kosmicheskaya biologiya i meditsina. Tom 3. Kniga 1. Chelovek v kosmicheskom polete (Space Biology and Medicine, Vol. 3, Book 1: A Man in the Space Flights), Moscow: Nauka, 1997, pp. 211–230.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Afonin, B.V., Functioning of digestive system during prolonged space missions and hypokinesia conditions, Ross. Zh. Gastroenterol., Gepatol., Koloproktol., 1999, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 5–15.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Markin, A.A., Morukov, B.V., Zhuravleva, O.A., et al., Characteristics of cosmonauts’ metabolism after extended missions on the International space station, Aviakosm. Ekol. Med., 2005, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 36–41.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nichiporuk, I.A. and Morukov, B.V., Investigation of biochemical parameters during long-term spaceflights on the International Space Station, in Kosmicheskaya biologiya i meditsina. Tom 2. Mediko-biologicheskie issledovaniya na rossiiskom segmente MKS (Space Biology and Medicine, Vol. 2: Medical and Biological Studies in the Russian Part of the International Space Station), Moscow: Nauka, 2011, pp. 228–234.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Noskov, V.B., Nichiporuk, I.A., and Grigor’ev, A.I., Dynamics of the body liquids and composition in prolonged space flight (bio-impedance analysis), Aviakosm. Ekol. Med., 2007, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 3–7.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Likhacheva, N.V. and Korlyakova, O.V., Amino acid metabolism, in Biokhimiya (Biochemistry), Moscow, 2001, pp. 226–253.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leigh Richards, M. and Davies, P., Energy cost of activity assessed by indirect calorimetry and a 13CO2 breath test, Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 2001, vol. 33, pp. 834–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shew, S., Beckett, P., Keshen, T., Jahoor, F., and Jaksic, T., Validation of a 13C-bicarbonate tracer technique to measure neonatal energy expenditure, Pediatr. Res., 2000, vol. 47, pp. 787–791.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Horswill, C., Zipf, W., and Kien, C., Measuring energy costs of leisure activity in adolescents using a CO2-breath test, Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 1997, vol. 29, pp. 1263–1268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dergachev, A.I., Ul’trazvukovaya diagnostika zabolevanii vnutrennikh organov (Ultrasonic Diagnostics of Internal Diseases), Moscow: Ross. Univ. Druzhby Narodov, 1995.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rapoport, S.I., Shubina, N.A., and Semenov, N.V., 13 C-dykhatel’nyi test v praktike gastroenterologa (13CBreath Test in Gastroenterological Practice), Moscow: Medpraktika-M, 2007.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gardner, D.G. and Shoback, D.M., Greenspan’s Basic and Clinical Endocrinology, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kamyshnikov, V.S., Glucose tolerance tests, in Klinikobiokhimicheskaya laboratornaya diagnostika (Clinical Biochemical Laboratory Tests), Minsk: Interpressservis, 2003, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ciccocioppo, R., Candelli, M., Francesco, D., et al., Study of liver function in healthy elderly subjects using the 13C-methacetine breath test, Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2003, no. 17, pp. 271–279.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Glantz, S.A., Primer of Biostatistics, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zvenigorodskaya, L.A., Kornev, Yu.V., and Efremov, L.I., The evolution of concepts about the metabolic syndrome, Eksp. Klin. Gastroenterol., 2010, no. 7, pp. 3–5.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goland-Ruvinova, L.G., Pechenkina, R.A., Goncharova, N.P., and Smirnov, K.V., Functional test with carbohydrate load in conditions of prolonged antiorthostatic hypokinesia, Kosm. Biol. Aviakosm. Med., 1986, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 41–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Afonin, B.V., Nichiporuk, I.A., Nesterov, M.A., et al., The results of ultrasound investigations of the pancreas and changes in glycemic curves with glucose intake during the long antiorthostatic hypokinesia, Aviakosm. Ekol. Med., 1998, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 23–28.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Smirnov, K.V., Ruvinova, L.G., Medkova, I.L., et al., Functions of the pancreas with prolonged bed rest, Fiziol. Chel., 1986, no. 3, pp. 499–503.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. N. Agureev
    • 1
  • B. V. Afonin
    • 1
  • E. A. Sedova
    • 1
  • A. A. Solovieva
    • 1
  • V. A. Valuev
    • 1
  • L. A. Sidorenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biomedical ProblemsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations