Human Physiology

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 524–529 | Cite as

Specific activation of brain cortical areas in response to stimulation of the support receptors in healthy subjects and patients with focal lesions of the CNS

  • E. I. Kremneva
  • I. V. Saenko
  • L. A. Chernikova
  • A. V. Chervyakov
  • R. N. Konovalov
  • I. B. Kozlovskaya


The space medicine data on the nature of motor disorders suggest an important role of the support inputs in the control of mammalian tonic and postural systems. Progress in functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRT) makes it possible to perform in vivo analysis of various brain areas during stimulation of the support afferentation. Under these conditions, specific activation of the brain cortical areas was studied in 19 healthy subjects (with the mean age of 38 ± 15.13 years) and 23 patients (with the mean age of 53 ± 9.07 years) with focal CNS lesions (cortical-subcortical ischemic stroke). During scanning of subjects, the support areas of the soles of the feet were stimulated using a block design to simulate slow walking. In healthy subjects, significant activation was recorded (p < 0.05 at the cluster level) in the primary somatosensory cortex, premotor and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and insular lobe. In patients that had had a stroke, activation of the locomotion-controlling supraspinal systems clearly depended on the stage of the disease. In patients with a cortical-subcortical stroke, the pattern of contralateral activation of the sensorimotor locomotion predominated during motility rehabilitation.


fMRT sensorimotor cortex support afferentation simulation of slow walking 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kozlovskaya, I.B., Vinogradova, O.V., Sayenko, I.V., et al., New approaches to countermeasures of the negative effects of microgravity in long-term space flights, Acta Astronaut., 2006, vol. 59, p. 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kozlovskaya, I.B., Sayenko, I.V., Sayenko, D.G., et al., Role of support afferentation in control of the tonic muscle activity, Acta Astronaut., 2007, vol. 60, p. 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miller, T., Ivanov, O., Galanov, D., et al., The method of support stimulation as a way to maintain activity of the tonic muscular system during functional support deprivation, J. Gravit. Physiol, 2005, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 149.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grigoriev, A.I., Kozlovskaya, I.B., and Shenkman, B.S., The role of support afferents in organization of the tonic muscle system, Rus. Physiol. J, 2004, vol. 90, no. 5, p. 508.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Golaszewski, S.M., Siedentopf, C.M., Baldauf, E., et al., Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human sensorimotor cortex using a novel vibrotactile stimulator, NeuroImage, 2002, vol. 17, p. 421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ying Hao, Manor, B., Jing Liu, et al., Novel MRI-compatible tactile stimulator for cortical mapping of foot sole pressure stimuli with fMRI, Magn. Reson. Med., 2013, vol. 69, p. 1194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Golaszewski, S.M., Siedentopf, C.M., Koppelstaetter, F., et al., Human brain structures related to plantar vibrotactile stimulation: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, NeuroImage, 2006, vol. 29, p. 923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sacco, K., Cauda, F., Cerliani, L., et al., Motor imagery of walking following training in locomotor attention. the effect of “the tango lesso”, NeuroImage, 2006, vol. 32, no. (3), p. 1441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crenna, P. and Frigo, C., A motor program for the initiation of forward-oriented movements in humans, J. Physiol., 1991, vol. 437, p. 635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jian, Y., Winter, D.A., Ishac, M.G., and Gilchrist, L., Trajectory of the body cog and cop during initiation and termination of gait, Gait Posture, 1993, no. 1, p. 9.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McFadyen, B. and Winter, D.A., Anticipatory locomotor adjustments during obstructed human walking, Neurosci. Res., 1991, no. 9, p. 37.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lafleur, M.F., Jackson, P.L., Malouin, F., et al., Motor learning produces parallel dynamic functional changes during the execution and imagination of sequential foot movements, NeuroImage, 2002, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jackson, P.L., Lafleur, M.F., Malouin, F., et al., Functional cerebral reorganization following motor sequence learning through mental practice with motor imagery, NeuroImage, 2003, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 1171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gerardin, E., Sirigu, A., Lehericy, S., et al., Partially overlapping neural networks for real and imagined hand movements, Cereb. Cortex, 2002, vol. 10, no. (11), p. 1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P., and Sorgato, P., Modalityspecific and supramodal mechanisms of apraxia, Brain, 1982, vol. 105, no. 2, p. 301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Iseki, K., Hanakawa, T., Hashikawa, K., et al., Gait disturbance associated with white matter changes: a gait analysis and blood flow study, NeuroImage, 2010, vol. 49, p. 1659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jahn, K., Deutschlander, A., Stephan, T., et al., Brain activation patterns during imagined stance and locomotion in functional magnetic resonance imaging, NeuroImage, 2004, vol. 22, p. 1722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lotze, M., Montoya, P., Erb, M., et al., Activation of cortical and cerebellar motor areas during executed and imagined hand movements: an fMRI study, J. Cogn. Neurosci., 1999, vol. 11, no. 5, p. 491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nair, D.G., Purcott, K.L., Fuchs, A., et al., Cortical and cerebellar activity of the human brain during imagined and executed unimanual and bimanual action sequences: a functional MRI study, Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res., 2003, vol. 15, no. 3, p. 250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cao, Y., D’Olhaberriague, L., Vikingstad, E.M., et al., Pilot study of functional MRI to assess cerebral activation of motor function after poststroke hemiparesis, Stroke, 1998, no. 29, p. 112.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cramer, S.C., Moore, C.I., Finklestein, S.P., and Rosen, B.R., A pilot study of somatotopic mapping after cortical infarct, Stroke, 2000, no. 31, p. 668.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Calautti, C. and Baron, J.C., Functional neuroimaging studies of motor recovery after stroke in adults, Stroke, 2003, no. 34, p. 1553.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. I. Kremneva
    • 1
  • I. V. Saenko
    • 2
  • L. A. Chernikova
    • 1
  • A. V. Chervyakov
    • 1
  • R. N. Konovalov
    • 1
  • I. B. Kozlovskaya
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Center of NeurologyRussian Academy of Medical SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Biomedical ProblemsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations