Water Resources

, Volume 46, Supplement 2, pp S69–S80 | Cite as

Modeling Water Pollution under Different Scenarios of Zinc Load on the Nizhnekamskoe Reservoir Watershed

  • T. B. FashchevskayaEmail author
  • Yu. G. Motovilov


The potentialities of the physically-based model ECOMAG-HM for the study of zinc content formation regularities in the Nizhnekamskoe Reservoir basin have been demonstrated. The basin is characterized by high concentrations of heavy metals in natural waters due to the significant content of ore-forming elements in rocks and a high level of economic development. The daily zinc concentrations have been calculated, and the maps of mean annual zinc concentrations in the river network have been compiled. Local areas of the catchment not covered by hydrochemical observations and showing a significant level of river water contamination by zinc have been identified. The fields of the genetic components of zinc hydrochemical runoff have been calculated. The contribution of anthropogenic sources to the zinc runoff formation has been estimated, and it has been established that, with the current level of anthropogenic load, the contribution of wastewater point discharges does not exceed 4%. The scenarios and consequences of increasing the amount of zinc discharged as part of wastewater are considered. The time scale of the catchment self-purification from zinc has been evaluated. The results show that, in the absence of external impacts on the catchment area, a decrease in zinc content in river waters over a 400-year period will be about as little as 8%.


river basin ECOMAG-HM model zinc washoff  mapping anthropogenic load point and diffuse sources of pollution self-purification 



This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, (project no. 17-77-30006) and State Scientific Assignment no. 0147-2019-0001 (reg. AAAA-A18-118022090056-0).


  1. 1.
    Abbaspour, K.C., Rouholahnejad, E., Vaghefi, S. et al., A continental-scale hydrology and water qualitymodel for Europe: calibration and uncertainty of a high-resolution large-scale SWAT model, J. Hydrol., 2015, vol. 524, pp. 733–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abdrakhmanov, R.F., Chalov, Y.N., and Abdrakhmanova, E.P., Presnye podzemnye vody Bashkortostana (Fresh Groundwater in Bashkortostan), Ufa: Informreklama, 2007.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bedient, P.B., Lambert, J.L., and Springer, N.K., Stormwater pollutant load runoff relationships, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., 1980, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 2396–2404.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chernogayeva, E.M., Tendentsii i dinamika sostoyaniya i zagryazneniya okruzhayushchei sredy v Rossiyskoi Federacii po dannym mnogoletnego monitoringa za poslednie 10 let. Analiticheskiн obzor (Tendencies and Dynamics of the State and Pollution of the Environment in the Russian Federation According to the Data of Long-Term Monitoring for the Last 10 Years. Analytical Review), Resp. Ed., Moscow: Rosgidromet, 2017.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fashchevskaya, T.B., Motovilov, Y.G., and Shadiyanova, N.B., Natural and anthropogenic variations of the concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc in water streams of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Water Resour., 2018, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 873–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fashchevskaya T.B., Polianin V.O., and Fedosova L.V., Structural analysis of water quality formation in an urban watercourse: point, non-point, transit, and natural components, Water Resour., 2018, vol. 45, Suppl. 1, pp. S67–S78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fuchs, S., Kaiser, M., Kiemle, L. et al., Modeling of regionalized emissions (MoRE) into water bodies: an open-source river basin management system, Water, 2017, vol. 9, no. 4, p. 239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Galvan, L., Fernandez de Villaran, R., Olias, M., and Domingo-Santos, J.M., Application of the SWAT model to an AMD affected river (Meca River, SW Spain). Estimation of transported pollutant load, J. Hydrol., 2009, vol. 377, pp. 445–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gao, L. and Li, D., A review of hydrological/water-quality models, Front. Agric. Sci. Eng., 2014, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gosudarstvennyi doklad “O sostoyanii i ispol’zovanii vodnyh resursov Rossiiskoi Federacii v 2016 godu” (State report “On the State and Use of Water Resources of the Russian Federation in 2016”), Moscow, 2017.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gosudarstvennyi doklad “O sostoyanii prirodnykh resursov i okruzhayushchei sredy Respubliki Bashkortostan v 2004–2016 godah” (State Report “On the State of Natural Resources and the Environment in the Republic of Bashkortostan in 2004–2016”), Ufa, 2005–2017.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hesse, C. and Krysanova, V., Modeling climate and management change impacts on water quality and in-stream processes in the Elbe river basin, Water, 2016, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kashestvo poverkhnostnyh vod Rossiiskoi Federatcii. Informatsiya o naibolee zagryaznennyh vodnyh obektakh Rossiiskoi Federacii (Prilozhenie k ezhegodniky) (Surface Water Quality of the Russian Federation. Information on the Most Polluted Water Bodies of the Russian Federation (Annex to the Yearbook)), 2010–2016, Rostov-on-Don, 2011–2017.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    CREAMS: A field scale model for chemical, runoff and erosion from agricultural management systems, in: USDA Conservation Research Report, Knisel, W.G., Ed., no. 26, Washington: Dept. of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, 1980.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krysanova, V., Hattermann, F., Huang S., and Hesse, C., Water quality modelling in mesoscale and large river basins, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), 2: Hydrological Systems Modeling, Isle of Man: Eolss Publishers, 2009, pp. 11–48.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maistrenko, V.N., Khamitov, R.Z., and Budnikov, G.K., Ekologoanaliticheskii monitoring superekotoksikantov (Ecological–Analytical Monitoring of Superecotoxicants), Moscow: Khimiya, 1996.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Motovilov, Y.G., ECOMAG: a distributed model of runoff formation and pollution transformation in river basins, IAHS Publ., 361, 2013, pp. 227–234.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Motovilov, Y.G., Hydrological simulation of river basins at different spatial scales: 2. Test results, Water Resour., 2016, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 743–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Motovilov, Y.G. and Gelfan, A.N., Modeli formirovania stoka v zadachakh gidrologii rechnykh basseinov (Models of Runoff Formation in the Problems of River Basin Hydrology), Moscow: Publ. RAS, 2018.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Motovilov, Yu.G. and Fashchevskaya, T.B., Simulation of spatially distributed copper pollution in a large river basin using the ECOMAG-HM model, Hydro. Sci. J., 2019, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 739–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Motovilov, Yu.G. and Fashchevskaya, T.B., Spatially distributed model of the heavy metals flow formation in the river basin, Voda: Khim Ecol., 2018, nos. 1–3, pp. 18–31.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Santhi, C., Kannan, N., Arnold J.G., and Di Luzio, M., Spatial calibration and temporal validation of flow for regional scale hydrologic modeling, J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc., 2008, 44, pp. 829–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shcherbakov, B.Ya., Chilikin, A.Ya., and Izhevskiy, V.S., Volley discharges of industrial sewage and their consequences, Ekol. Prom. Ross., 2002, no. 6, pp. 39–41.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shulkin V.M., Heavy metals in river and coastal-marine ecosystems, Extended Abstract of Doct. Sci. (Eng.) Dissertation, Vladivostok: Pacific Geographical Institute, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2007. 38 p.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    SNIP-2.01.14-83. Opredelenie raschetnyh gidrologicheskih kharakteristik (Construction Standards and Regulations, Determining Design Hydrological Characteristics), Moscow: Stroiizdat, 1985.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vink, R. and Peters, S., Modelling point and diffuse heavy metal emissions and loads in the Elbe basin, Hydrol. Processes, 2003, no. 17, pp. 1307–1328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yang, Y.S. and Wang, L., A review of modelling tools for implementation of the EU water framework directive in handling diffuse water pollution, Water Resour. Manag., 2010, 24, pp. 1819–1843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yaparov, I.M., Atlas Respubliki Bashkortostan (Atlas of the Republic of Bashkortostan), Ufa: Kitap, 2005.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of ScienceMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations