Water Resources

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 773–795 | Cite as

Bioassessment of water quality and defining of critical levels of multicontamination for aquatic life

  • T. I. Moiseenko
Water Quality and Protection: Environmental Aspects
  • 120 Downloads

Abstract

The existing approaches to and methods for bioassessment of water quality are critically analyzed. The significance of the methodological approach under the concept of ecosystem “health” as the most integral numerical method for assessing pollution effects. Comparative analysis is given to the significance of criteria based on the state of individuals, populations, and communities. The results of practical testing of the methods developed for biological assessment of water quality for some water bodies are presented. Critical levels are established based on the construction of dose-effect dependences. The basic principles for limiting surface water pollution are formulated.

Keywords

bioassessment water quality pollution critical levels 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abakumov, V.A., Ecological Modifications and the Development of Biocenoses, in Ekologicheskie modifikatsii i kriterii ekologicheskogo normirovaniya (Ecological Modifications and Criteria of Ecological Standardization), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1991.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abakumov, V.A. and Sushchenya, L.M., Hydrobiological Monitoring of Freshwater Ecosystems and Ways to Its Improvement, in Ekologicheskie modifikatsii i kriterii ekologicheskogo normirovaniya (Ecological Modifications and Criteria of Ecological Standardization), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1991.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akimova, N.V. and Ruban, G.I., Analysis of Fish Reproductive System in the Context of Bioindication Problems: Case Study of Siberian Sturgeon Asirenser baeri, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1992 vol. 32,iss. 6, pp. 102–109.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alabaster, G. and Lloid, R., Kriterii kachestva vody dlya presnovodnykh ryb (Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish), Moscow: Legkaya i pishchev. prom-st’, 1984.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arshanitsa, N.M., Materials of Ichthyotoxicological Studies in Ladoga Basin, in Vliyanie zagryaznenii na ekosistemu Ladozhskogo ozera (Effect of Pollution on Ladoga Lake Ecosystem), Leningrad: GosNIORKh, 1988, p. 12–23.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bulgakov, N.G., Dubinina, V.G., Levich, A.P., and Terekhin, A.T., Method of Conjugations between Hydrobiological Indices, Izv. RAN. Ser. biol., 1995, no. 2, pp. 218–225.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vorobeichik, E.L., Sadykov, O.F., and Farafontov, M.G., Ekologicheskoe normirovanie tekhnogennykh zagryaznenii nazemnykh ekosistem (lokal’nyi uroven’) (Ecological Standardization of Technogenic Pollution of Terrestrial Ecosystems: Local Level), Yekaterinburg: Nauka, 1994.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Glazovskaya, M.A., Geokhimiya prirodnykh i tekhnogennykh landshaftov (Geochemistry of Natural and Technogenic Landscapes), Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1988.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    GOST (State Standard) 27065-86: Water Quality: Terms and Definitions, 1987.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gosudarstvennyi doklad o sostoyanii okruzhayushchei sredy Rossiiskoi Federatsii v 2002 g (State Report on the Environmental State in the Russian Federation in 2002), Moscow: Minesterstvo prirodnykh resursov, 2003.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Evseev, A.V. and Krasovskaya, T.M., Ekologo-Geograficheskie Osobennosti Prirodnoi Sredy Raionov Krainego Severa (Ecological-Geographic Features of the Environment in Extreme North Areas). Smolensk: Izd. SGU, 1996.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Edinye kriterii kachestva vod. Soveshchanie rukovoditelei vodokhozyaistvennykh organov stran-chlenov SEV (Unified Criteria of Water Quality. Meeting of Heads of Water Management Bodies of CEMA Member States), Moscow: SEV, 1982.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhiteneva, L.D., Poltavtseva, T.G., and Rudnetskaya, O.A., Atlas normal’nykh i patologicheskikh izmenennykh kletok krovi ryb (Atlas of Normal and Pathologically Changed Fish Blood Cells), Rostov-on-Don: Rostov. Knizh. Izd., 1989.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ivanova, N.T., Metod morfologicheskogo analiza krovi v ikhtiopatologicheskikh issledovaniyakh (Method of Morphological Blood Analyses in Ichthyopathological Studies), Izv. GosNIORKh. 1976, no. 105, pp. 114–117.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Izrael’, Yu.A., Ekologiya i kontrol’ sostoyaniya prirodnoi sredy (Ecology and Environmental Control), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1984.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krylov, O.N., Posobie po profilaktike i diagnostike otravlenii ryb vrednymi veshchestvami (Guide on Prophylactics and Diagnostics of Fish Intoxication with Hazardous Substances), Moscow: Pishch. prom., 1980.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Laskorin, B.N. and Luk’yanenko, V.I., Strategy and Tactics of Water Body Protection against Pollution, in Tez. dokl. II Vsesoyuznoi konferentsii po rybokhozyaistvennoi toksikologii (Abstracts of Papers II All-Union Conference on Fishery Toxicology), St. Petersburg, 1991, pp. 5–8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Levich, A.P. and Terekhin, A.T., A Method to Calculate Ecologically Admissible Levels of Impact on Freshwater Ecosystems, Vodn. Resur., 1997, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 328–335 [Water Resour. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 302–309].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lesnikov, L.A., System of Studies for Developing Fishery-Based Water Quality Standards Taking into Account the Extension of Experimental Data to Natural Water Bodies, in Vliyanie zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv na gidrobiontov i ekosistemy vodoemov (Effect of Pollutants on Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems of Water Bodies), Leningrad, 1979, p. 301–309.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lukin, A.A. and Sharova, Yu.N., Water Quality Estimation Based on Histological Investigations of Fish: Case Study of Kenozero Lake, Vodn. Resur., 2004, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 481–488 [Water Resour. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 443–449].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Luk’yanenko, V.I., Obshchaya ikhtiotoksikologiya (General Ecotoxicology), Moscow: Legk. Pishch. prom., 1987.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Luk’yanenko, V.I., General Regularities in Ecosystem Degradation and Water Quality Deterioration in Polluted Water Bodies, in Tez. dokl. II Vsesoyuznoi konferentsii po rybokhozyaistvennoi toksikologii (Abstracts of Papers II All-Union Conference on Fishery Toxicology), St. Petersburg, 1991, pp. 16–18.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    L’vovich, M.I., Voda i zhizn’ (Water and Life), Moscow: Nauka, 1986.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Metodicheskie ukazaniya po ustanovleniyu ekologorybokhozyaistvennykh normativov (PDK i OBUV) zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv dlya vody vodnykh ob”ektov, imeyushchikh rybokhozyaistvennoe znachenie (Methodological Guide for Establishing Ecological-Fishery Standards (MAC and RSKHS) in Water Bodies of Significance for Fishery), Filenko, O.F, Ed., Moscow: VNIRO, 1998.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moiseenko, T.I., Anthropogenic Variability of Freshwater Ecosystems and Criteria for Water Quality Assessment, in Problemy ekologicheskogo monitoringa i modelirovaniya ekosistem (Problems in Environmental Monitoring and Ecosystem Modeling), St. Petersburg: GIDROMET, 2003, vol. 19, p. 72.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moiseenko, T.I., Zakislenie vod: faktory, mekhanizmy i ekologicheskie posledstviya (Water Acidification: Factors, Mechanisms, and Environmental Consequences), Moscow: Nauka, 2003.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moiseenko, T.I. and Lukin, A.A., Fish Pathologies in Polluted Subarctic Water Bodies and Their Diagnostics, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1999, no. 4, pp. 535–547.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moiseenko, T.I., Concept of Ecosystem Health in Water Quality Assessment, Ekologiya, 2008, no. 6, pp. 411–419.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Moiseenko, T.I., Teoreticheskie osnovy normirovaniya antropogennykh nagruzok na vodoemy Subarktiki (Theoretical Principles of Standardization of Anthropogenic Load on Subartic Water Bodies), Apatity: Izd. Kol’skNTs RAN, 1997.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Moiseenko, T.I., Gashkina, N.A., Sharova, Yu.N., and Pokoeva, A.G., Ecotoxicological Assessment of After-Effects of the Volga River Water Contamination, Vodn. Resur., 2005, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 410–424 [Water Resour. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 369–383].Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moiseenko, T.I. and Gashkina, N.A., The Distribution of Trace Elements in Surface Continental Waters and the Character of Their Migration in Water, Vodn. Resur., 2007, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 454–468 [Water Resour. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 423–437].Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Moiseenko, T.I. and Kudryavtseva, L.P., Ecotoxicological Assessment of Anthropogenic Hydrogeochemical Anomalies: An Example Being the Kola Mining and Metallurgical Complex, Geokhimiya, 1999, no. 10, pp. 1000–1017 [Geochem. Intern. [Engl. Transl.), vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1000–1017].Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Moiseenko, T.I., Kudryavtseva, L.P., and Gashkina, N.A., Rasseyannye elementy v poverkhnostnykh vodakh sushi (Trace Elements in Surface Waters), Moscow: Nauka, 2006.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moiseenko, T.I., Lukin, A.A., Sharova, Yu.N., and Koroleva, I.N., Fish Part of the Community in the Changing Conditions of Habitat, in Antropogennye modifikatsii ekosistemy ozera Imandra (Anthropogenic Modification of Lake Imandra Ecosystem), Moscow: Nauka, 2002.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Moiseenko, T.I., Ecotoxicological Assessment of After-Effects of the Volga River Water Contamination Vodn. Resur., 2005, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 410–424 [Water Resour. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 369–383].Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Moiseenko, T.I., The Theory of Critical Loads and Assessment of the Effect of Acid-Forming Substances on Surface Waters Dokl. RAN, 2001, vol. 378, pp. 250–253 [Doklady, vol. 378, pp. 468–471].Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nemova, N.N. and Vysotskaya, R.U., Biokhimichekaya indikatsiya sostoyaniya ryb (Biochemical Indication of Fish State), Moscow: Nauka, 2004.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nemova, N.N., Vysotskaya, R.U., and Sidorov, V.S., Biochemical Indication of Toxic Impact on Fish, in Aktual’nyi problem vodnoi toksikologii (Urgent Problems of Aquatic Toxicology), Borok: IBVV RAN, 2004, pp. 81–98.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nikanorov, A.M., Ecological Standardization of Anthropogenic Impact on Freshwater and Estuarine Water Bodies, in Metodologiya ekologicheskogo normirovaniya Tez. dokl. vsesoyuz. konf. (Methodology of Ecological Standardization, Abstracts of Papers, All-Union Conf.), Kharkov, 1990, pp. 40–41.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Odum, Yu.P., Fundamentals of Ecology, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1971.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Patin, S.A., Anthropogenic Impact on Marine Environment and Bioresources: Assessment Methodology, in Antropogennoe vozdeistvie na vodnye ekosistemy (Anthropogenic Impact on Aquatic Ecosystems), Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Univ., 2005, p. 32–60.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Patin, S.A., Ekologicheskie problemy osvoeniya neftegazovykh resursov morskogo shel’fa (Environmental Problems of Oil and Gas Production on Sea Shelf), Moscow: VNIRO, 1997.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Perechen’ rybokhozyaistvennykh normativov predel’nodopustimykh kontsentratsii (PDK) i orientirovochno bezopasnykh urovnei vozdeistviya (OBUV) vrednykh veshchestv dlya vody vodnykh ob”ektov, imeyushchikh rybokhozyaistvennoe znachenie (List of Fishery-Based Standards on Maximal Allowable Concentrations (MAC) and Relatively Safe Level of Hazardous Substances (RSLHS) for Water Bodies of Fishery Significance), Moscow: VNIRO, 1999.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reshetnikov, Yu.S., Method of Expert Estimation of the State of a Specimen or Population of Whitefish, in Biologiya i biotekhnika razvedeniya sigovykh ryb (Biology and Biotechnique of Whitefish Farming), St. Petersburg: GosNIORKh, 1994.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rodyushkin, I.V., Major Regularities in Metal Distributions over Forms in Surface Water of Kola North, Cand. Sci. (Geogr.) Dissertation, St. Petersburg: Inst. Limnology, RAS, 1995.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rukovodstvo po gidrobiologicheskomu monitoringu presnovodnykh ekosistem (Guide on Hydrobiological Monitoring of Freshwater Ecosystems), Abakumov, V.A., Ed., St. Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat, 1992.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sadykov, O.F., Ecological Expertise under the Conditions of the North, in Ratsional’noe ispol’zovanie prirodnykh resursov i okhrana okruzhayushchei sredy (Rational Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection), Petrozavodsk: Izd. Kar. NTs RAN, 1998, p. 42–50.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stroganov, N.S., Kriterii toksichnosti i printsip metodik po vodnoi toksikologii (Toxicity Criterion and the Principle of Methodologies for Water Toxicology), Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Univ., 1971, pp. 14–28.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Filenko, O.F., Dmitrieva, A.G., Isaeva, E.F., et al., Response Mechanisms of Aquatic Organisms to Toxic Substance Impact, in Antropogennoe vliyanie na vodnye ekosistemy (Anthropogenic Impact on Aquatic Ecosystems), Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Univ., 2005, pp. 70–93.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Filenko, O.F., On the Life and Work of N.S. Stroganov, in Antropogennye vliyaniya na vodnye ekosistemy (Anthropogenic Impact on Aquatic Ecosystems), Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Univ., 2005, pp. 3–12.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Flerov, B.A., Ekologo-fiziologicheskie aspekty toksikologii presnovodnykh zhivotnykh (Ecological-Physiological Aspects of Freshwater Animal Toxicology), Leningrad: Nauka, 1989.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Adams, S.M., Assessing Cause and Effect of Multiple Stressors on Marine Systems, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2005, vol. 51, no. 8–12, pp. 649–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Adams, S.M., Brown, A.M.., and Geode, R.W., A Quantitative Health Assessment Index for Rapid Evaluation of Fish Condition in the Field, Trans. Amer. Fish Soc., 1996, vol. 22, pp. 63–73.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Adams, S.M., Biological Indicators of Stress in Fish, American Fishery Society Symposium 8, Bethesda, Maryland, 1990.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Adams, S.M. and Ryon, M.G., A Comparison of Health Assessment Approaches for Evaluating the Effects of Contaminant-Related Stress on Fish Populations, Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Health, 1994, vol. 3, pp. 15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Attrill, M.J. and Depledge, M.H., Community and Population Indicators of Ecosystem Health: Targeting Links between Levels of Biological Organization, Aquat. Toxicol., 1997, vol. 38, pp. 183–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bioassay Methods for Aquatic Organisms, Standart Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Sixteenth Edition), Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 1985.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bitton, G., and Dutku, B.J., Review of Microbial and Biochemical Toxicity Screening Procedures, 1989.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cairns, J.Jr., and Pratt, J.R., Functional Testing of Aquatic Biota for Estimating Hazards of Chemicals, Philadelphia. N.Y, 1989.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Canadian Water Quality Guidelines, Ottawa; Ontario: Published by Canadian Council Ministry of Environment, 1994.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cash, K.J., Assessing and Monitoring Aquatic Ecosystem Health-Approaches Using Individual, Population, and Community/Ecosystem Measurements, Northern River Basins Study Project, Report no. 45, 1995.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chronic Toxicity Test Standard Using Daphnids in Renewal and Flowthrough System. Office of Testing and Evaluation and Office of Pesticides Toxic Substances, Washington, DC: Environ. Protection Agency, 1980.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Critical Loads and Critical Limit Values, Raitio, H., and Kilponen, T., Eds., Helsinki: Northern Council Ministry, 1994.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Crommentuijn, T., and Sijm, D., Bruijn, J., et al., Maximum Permissible and Negligible Concentrations for Metals and Metalloids in the Netherlands: Taking into Account Background Concentrations, Environ. Management, 2000, vol. 60, p. 121–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Environmental Quality Objectives for Hazardous Substances in Aquatic Enviroment, Berlin: UMWELTBUNDESAMT, 2001.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ferguson, H.W., Systematic Pathology of Fish, Iowa: State University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Forbes, V.E. and Forbes, T.L., Ecotoxicology in Theory and Practice. Ecotoxicology Series, London; Glasgow; N-Y; Tokyo; Melbourne; Madras: Chapman & Hall Ltd, 1994.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Henriksen, A., Kamari, I., Posch, M., Wilander, A., Critical Loads of Acidity: Nordic Surface Waters, AMBIO, 1992, no. 21, pp. 356–363.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hinton, D.E, Toxicological Histopathology of Fish: A Systematic Approach and Overview, in Pathobiology of Marine and Estuarine Organisms, Couch, J.A., and Fournie, J.A., Eds., Boca Raton: CRC, 1993, pp. 177–215.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hinton, D.E., and Lauren, D.J., Integrative Hystopathological Approaches to Detective Effects of Environment Stressors on Fish, New York: Published by American Fisheries Society, 1990, vol. 8, pp. 51–66.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hokanson, L., Water Pollution-Criteria to Rank Threats and Risks to Aquatic Ecosystem, Stockholm: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 1992.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hylland, K., Fiest, S., Thain, J., and Forlin, L., Molecular/Cellular Possesses and the Health of Individual, Effect Pollution on Fish, Lawrence, A.J., Hemingway K.L., Eds., Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd., 2003, p. 133–170.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jagoe, C.H., Responses at the Tissue Level: Quantitative Methods in Histopathology Applied to Ecotoxicology, Ecotoxicology: a Hierarchical Trieatment, Newman, M.C., Jagoe Ch.H., Eds., New York: Levis publishers Ltd, 1996, p. 163–196.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lee, R., Davies, J.M., Freeman, Y.C., et al., Biochemical Techniques for Monitoring Biological Effects of Pollution in the Sea, Environ. Manag., 1980, vol. 179, pp. 48–55.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Levin, S.A., Kimball, E.D., New Perspectives in Ecotoxicology, Environ. Manag., 1984, vol. 8, pp. 375–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lithner, G., Quality Criteria for Lakes and Watercourses. Background Report 2-Metals, Stockholm: Swedish EPA, 1989.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    McGeer, J.C., Szebedinszky, C., Mc, Donald D.G., and Wood, C.M., The Role of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Moderating the Bioavailability and Toxicity of Cu to Rainbow Trout during Chronic Waterbourne Exposure, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 2002, vol. 133, pp. 147–160.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    McKennedy, C.L., and Matthews, E., Alteration in the Energy Metabolism an Estuarine Mysed (Mysidopses Bahia) as Indictor of Stress from Chronic Pesticide Exposure, Mar. Environ. Res., 1990, vol. 30, pp. 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Moiseenko, T.I., Voinov, A.A., Megorsky, V.V., et al., Ecosystem and Human Health Assessment to Define Environmental Management Strategies: The Case of Long-Term Human Impacts on an Arctic Lake, Sci. Total Environ., 2006, vol. 369, pp. 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Moiseenko, T.I., The Fate of Metals in Arctic Surface Waters. Method for Defining Critical Levels, Sci. Total Environ., 1999, vol. 236, pp. 19–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Musibono, D.E. and Day, J.A., The Effect of Mn on Mortality and Growth in the Freshwater Amphipod Paramelita Nigroculus (Barnard) Exposed to a Mixture of Al and Cu in Acidic Waters, Water Res., 1999, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 207–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Newman, M.C. and Jagoe, Ch.H., (Eds.), Ecotoxicology: a Hierarchical Trieatment, New York: Levis publishers Ltd., 1996.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Niimi, A.J., 1990. Review of Biochemical Methods and Other Indicators to Assess Fish Health in Aquatic Ecosystems Containing Toxic Chemicals, J. Great Lakes Res., vol. 16, pp. 529–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pratt, J.R., and Cains, J., Ecotoxicology and the Redundancy Problem: Understanding Effect on Community Structure and Function, Ecotoxicology: A Hierarchical Trieatment, New York: Levis publishers Ltd., 1996, pp. 347–398.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sindermann, C.J., Pollution-Associated Diseases and Abnormalities of Fish and Shellfish, Fosh.bull., 1979, vol. 76, pp. 717–749.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sindermann, C.J., Principal Diseases of Marine Fish and Shellfish, Second Edition, New York: Academic, 1990.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Walker, C.H., Hopkin, S.P., Sibly, R.M., and Peakall, D.B., Principles of Ecotoxicology (Second Edition), London: Taylor & Francis Ltd., 2001.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wong, P.T.S. and Dixon, D.G., Bioassessment of Water Quality, Environ. Toxicol. Water Quality, 1995, vol. 10, pp. 9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. I. Moiseenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Water Problems InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations