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Solar System Research

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 151–157 | Cite as

Comparison of three solar activity indices based on sunspot observations

  • A. P. Sarychev
  • E. M. Roshchina
Article

Abstract

The following sunspot formation indices are analyzed: the relative sunspot number R z, the normalized sunspot group number R g, and the total sunspot area A. Six empirical formulas are derived to describe the relations among these indices after 1908. The earlier data exhibit systematic deviations from these formulas, which can be attributed to systematic errors of the indices. The Greenwich data on the sunspot total area A and the sunspot group number in 1874–1880 are found to be doubtful. Erroneous data at the beginning of the Greenwich series must spoil the values of the index R g in the XVII–XIX centuries. The Hoyt-Schatten series of R g may be less reliable than the well-known Wolf number series R z.

PACS

96.60.qd 

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. P. Sarychev
    • 1
  • E. M. Roshchina
    • 1
  1. 1.Sternberg Astronomical InstituteMoscowRussia

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