Solar System Research

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 89–102 | Cite as

Seasonal redistribution of water in the surficial Martian regolith: Results from the Mars Odyssey high-energy neutron detector (HEND)

  • R. O. Kuzmin
  • E. V. Zabalueva
  • I. G. Mitrofanov
  • M. L. Litvak
  • A. V. Rodin
  • W. V. Boynton
  • R. S. Saunders
Article

Abstract

The seasonal variation of neutron emissions from Mars in different spectral intervals measured by the HEND neutron detector for the entire Martian year are analyzed. Based on these data, the spatial variations of the neutron emissions from the planet are globally mapped as a function of season, and the dynamics of seasonal variation of neutron fluxes with different energies is analyzed in detail. No differences were found between seasonal regimes of neutron fluxes in different energy ranges in the southern hemisphere of Mars, while the regime of fast neutrons (with higher energies) during the northern winter strongly differs from that during the southern winter. In winter (Ls = 270°–330°), the fast neutron fluxes are noticeably reduced in the northern hemisphere (along with the consecutive thickening of the seasonal cap of solid carbon dioxide). This provides evidence of a temporary increase in the water content in the effective layer of neutron generation. According to the obtained estimates, the observed reduction of the flux of fast neutrons in the effective layer corresponds to an increase in the water abundance of up to 5% in the seasonal polar cap (70°–90°N), about 3% at mid-latitudes, and from 1.5 to 2% at low latitudes. The freezing out of atmospheric water at the planetary surface (at middle and high latitudes) and the hydration of salt minerals composing the Martian soil are considered as the main processes responsible for the temporary increase in the water content in the soil and upper layer of the seasonal polar cap. The meridional atmospheric transport of water vapor from the summer southern to the winter northern hemisphere within the Hadley circulation cell is a basic process that delivers water to the subsurface soil layer and ensures the observed scale of the seasonal increase in water abundance. In the summer northern hemisphere, the similar Hadley circulation cell transports mainly dry air masses to the winter southern hemisphere. The point is that the water vapor becomes saturated at lower heights during aphelion, and the bulk of the atmospheric water mass is captured in the near-equatorial cloudy belt and, thus, is only weakly transferred to the southern hemisphere. This phenomenon, known as the Clancy effect, was suggested by Clancy et al. (1996) as a basic mechanism for the explanation of the interhemispheric asymmetry of water storage in permanent polar caps. The asymmetry of seasonal meridional circulation of the Martian atmosphere seems to be another factor determining the asymmetry of the seasonal water redistribution in the “atmosphere-regolith-seasonal polar caps” system, found in the peculiarities of the seasonal regime of the neutron emission of Mars.

PACS

96.30.Gc 29.30.Hs 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bibring, J-P., Langevin, Y., Gendrin, A., et al., and the OMEGA Team, Mars Surface Diversity as Revealed by the OMEGA/Mars Express Observations, Science, 2005, vol. 307, pp. 1576–1581.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Boynton, W.V., Feldman, W.C., Squyres, S.W., et al., Distribution of Hydrogen in the Near Surface of Mars: Evidence for Subsurface Ice Deposits, Science, 2002, vol. 297, pp. 81–85.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Boynton, W.V., Chamberlain, M., Feldman, M., et al., Abundance and Distribution of Ice in the Polar Regions of Mars: More Evidence for Wet Periods in the Recent Past, Proc. Sixth Int. Conf. on Mars, 2003, Abstract #3259.Google Scholar
  4. Christensen, P.R. and Moore, H.J., The Martian Surface Layers, Mars, Kieffer, H.H., Jakosky, B.M., Snyder, C.W., et al., Eds., Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press, 1992, pp. 686–729.Google Scholar
  5. Clancy, R.T., Grossman, A.W., and Muhleman, D.O., Mapping Mars Atmospheric Water Emission on 1.35 cm with the VLA, Icarus, 1992, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 48–59.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Clancy, R.T., Grossman, A.W., Wolff, M.J., et al., Water Vapor Saturation at Low Latitudes Around Aphelion: A Key to Mars Climate?, Icarus, 1996, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 36–62.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark, B.C. and van Hart, D.C., The Salts of Mars, Icarus, 1981, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 370–378.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Drake, D.M., Feldman, W.C., and Jakosky, B.M., Martian Neutron Leakage Spectra, J. Geophys. Res., 1988, vol. 93, pp. 6353–6368.ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Farmer, C.B. and Doms, P.E., Global and Seasonal Water Vapor on Mars and Implications for Permafrost, J. Geophys. Res., 1979, vol. 84, pp. 2881–2888.ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Fedorova, A.A., Rodin, A.V., and Baklanova, I.V., MAWD Observations Revisited: Seasonal Behavior of Water Vapor in the Martian Atmosphere, Icarus, 2004a, vol. 171, no. 1, pp. 54–67.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Fedorova, A.A., Rodin, A.V., and Baklanova, I.V., Seasonal Cycle of Water Vapor in the Atmosphere of Mars as Revealed from the MAWD/Viking 1 and 2 Experiment, Astron. Vestn., 2004b, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 1–14 [Sol. Syst. Res. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 421–433].Google Scholar
  12. Feldman, W.C., Boynton, W.V., Tokar, R.L., et al., Global Distribution of Neutrons from Mars: Results from Mars Odyssey, Science, 2002, vol. 297, pp. 75–78.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Feldman, W.C., Prettyman, T.H., Boynton, W.V., et al., The Global Distribution of Near-Surface Hydrogen on Mars, Proc. Sixth Int. Conf. on Mars, 2003, Abstract #3218.Google Scholar
  14. Forget, F., Hourdin, F., Fournier, R., et al., Improved General Circulation Models of the Martian Atmosphere from the Surface to Above 80 km, J. Geophys. Res., 1999, vol. 104, pp. 24155–21176.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Haberle, R.M., Pollack, J.B., Barnes, J.R., et al., Mars Atmospheric Dynamics as Simulated by the NASA AMES General Circulation Model. I — The Zonal-Mean Circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 1993, vol. 98, pp. 3093–3123.ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Jakosky, B.M. and Farmer, C.B., The Seasonal and Global Behavior of Water Vapor in the Mars Atmosphere: Complete Global Results of the Viking Atmospheric Water Vapor Detector Experiment, J. Geophys. Res., Ser. B, 1982, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 2999–3019.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jakosky, B.M. and Barker, E.S., Comparison of Groundbased and Viking Orbiter Measurement of Martian Water Vapor: Variability of the Seasonal Cycle, Icarus, 1984, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 322–334.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Jakosky, B.M. and Haberle, R.M., Year-To-Year Instability of the Mars South Polar Cap, J. Geophys. Res., 1990, vol. 95, pp. 1359–1365.ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Jakosky, B.M., Mellon, M.T., Varnes, E.S., et al., Mars Low-Latitude Neutron Distribution: Possible Remnant Near-Surface Water Ice and a Mechanism for Its Recent Emplacement, Icarus, 2005, vol. 175, no. 1, pp. 58–67.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Jones, T.D., Arvidson, R.E., Guinness, E.A., et al., One Mars Year: Viking Lander Imaging Observations, Science, 1979, vol. 204, pp. 799–806.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuzmin, R.O., Ground Ice in the Martian Regolith, Water on Mars and Life, Tokano, T., Ed., Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, pp. 154–189.Google Scholar
  22. Kuzmin, R.O. and Zabalueva, E.V., Polygonal Terrain on Mars: Preliminary Results of Global Mapping of Their Spatial Distribution, Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf. XXXIV, 2003, Abstract #1912.Google Scholar
  23. Kuzmin, R.O., Christensen, P.R., and Zolotov, M.Yu., Global Mapping of Martian Bound Water at 6.1 Microns Based on TES Data: Seasonal Hydration-Dehydration of Surface Minerals, Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf. XXXV, 2004a, Abstract #1810.Google Scholar
  24. Kuzmin, R.O., Zabalueva, E.V., Mitrofanov, I.G., et al., Regions of Potential Existence of Free Water (Ice) in the Near-Surface Martian Ground: Results from the Mars Odyssey High-Energy Neutron Detector (HEND), Astron. Vestn., 2004b, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1–13 [Sol. Syst. Res. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1–11].Google Scholar
  25. Kuzmin, R.O., Zabalueva, E.V., Mitrofanov, I.G., et al., Seasonal Redistribution of Water in the Surfacial Martian Regolith: Results of the HEND Data Analysis, Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf. XXXVI, 2005, Abstract #1634.Google Scholar
  26. Kuzmin, R.O., Christensen, P.R., Zolotov, M.Yu., and Anwar, S., Mapping of Seasonal Bound Water Content Variations on the Martian Surface Based on the TES Data, Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf. XXXVII, 2006, Abstract #1846.Google Scholar
  27. Litvak, M.L., Mitrofanov, I.G., Kozyrev, A.S., et al., Seasonal Neutron-Flux Variations in the Polar Caps of Mars as Revealed by the Russian HEND Instrument Onboard the NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft, Astron. Vestn., 2003, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 413–422 [Sol. Syst. Res. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 378–386].Google Scholar
  28. Litvak, M.L., Mitrofanov, I.G., Kozyrev, A.S., et al., Comparison Between Polar Regions of Mars from HEND/Odyssey Data, Icarus, 2006, vol. 180, no. 1, pp. 23–37.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Mellon, M.T. and Jakosky, B.M., The Distribution and Behavior of Martian Ground Ice During Past and Present Epochs, J. Geophys. Res., 1995, vol. 100, pp. 11781–11800.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Mellon, M.T., Feldman, W.C., and Prettyman, T.H., The Presence and Stability of Ice in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars, Icarus, 2004, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 324–340.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Mitrofanov, I., Anfimov, D., Kozyrev, A., et al., Maps of Subsurface Hydrogen from High Energy Neutron Detector, Science, 2002, vol. 297, pp. 78–81.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitrofanov, I.G., Litvak, M.L., Kozyrev, A.S., et al., Search for Water in Martian Soil Using Global Neutron Mapping by the Russian HEND Instrument Onboard the US 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft, Astron. Vestn., 2003, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 400–412 [Sol. Syst. Res. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 366–277].Google Scholar
  33. Mitrofanov, I.G., Litvak, M.L., Kozyrev, A.S., et al., Soil Water Content on Mars as Estimated from Neutron Measurements by the HEND Instrument Onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey Spacecraft, Astron. Vestn., 2004, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 291–303 [Sol. Syst. Res. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 253–257].Google Scholar
  34. Montmessin, F., Forge, F., Pannou, P., et al., Origin and Role of Water Ice Clouds in the Martian Water Cycle as Inferred from a General Circulation Model, J. Geophys. Res., Ser. E, 2004, vol. 109, p. 10004.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Richardson, M.I. and Wilson, R.J., Investigation of the Nature and Stability of the Martian Seasonal Water Cycle with a General Circulation Model, J. Geophys. Res., 2002, vol. 107, p. 5031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Richardson, M.I., Wilson, R.J., and Rodin, F.V., Water Ice Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere: General Circulation Model Experiments with Simple Cloud Scheme, J. Geophys. Res., 2002, p. 5064.Google Scholar
  37. Rieder, R.R., Gellert, R., and Anderson, R.C., Bruckner J. Chemistry of Rocks and Soils at Meridiani Planum from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer, Science, 2004, vol. 306, pp. 1746–1749.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Rodin, A.V. and Wilson, R.J., Seasonal Cycle of Martian Climate: Experimental Data and Numerical Simulation, Kosm. Issled., 2006, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1–5 [Cosmic Res. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 329–333].Google Scholar
  39. Smith, M.D., The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars As Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer, J. Geophys. Res., 2002, vol. 107, p. 19.ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Smith, M.D., Interannual Variability in TES Atmospheric Observations of Mars During 1999–2003, Icarus, 2004, vol. 167, no. 1, pp. 148–165.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Squyres, S.W., Grotzinger, J.P., Aridson, R.E., et al., In Situ Evidence for An Ancient Aqueous Environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars, Science, 2004, vol. 306, pp. 1709–1714.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Titus, T.N., Kieffer, H.H., and Christensen, P.R., Exposed Water Ice Discovered Near the South Pole of Mars, Science, 2002, vol. 299, pp. 1048–1051.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Tokano, T., Water Cycle in the Atmosphere and Shallow Subsurface, Water on Mars and Life, Tokano, T., Ed., Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, pp. 191–216.Google Scholar
  44. Tokano, T., Spatial Inhomogeneity of the Martian Subsurface Water Distribution: Implication from a Global Water Cycle Model, Icarus, 2003, vol. 164, no. 1, pp. 50–78.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Zent, A.P. and Quinn, R.C., Simultaneous Adsorption of CO2 and H2O Under Mars-Like Conditions and Application to the Evolution of the Martian Climate, J. Geophys. Res., 1995, vol. 100, pp. 5341–5349.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Zent, A.P., Howard, D.J., and Quinn, R.C., H2O Adsorption on Smectites: Application to the Diurnal Variation of H2O in the Martian Atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 2001, vol. 106, 14.667–14.674.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Zurek, R.W., Barnes, J.R., Haberle, R.M., et al., Dynamics of the atmosphere of Mars, in Mars, Kieffer, H.H.., Jakosky, B.M.., Snyder, C.W., et al., Eds., Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press, 1992, pp. 835–933.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. O. Kuzmin
    • 1
  • E. V. Zabalueva
    • 1
  • I. G. Mitrofanov
    • 2
  • M. L. Litvak
    • 2
  • A. V. Rodin
    • 2
  • W. V. Boynton
    • 3
  • R. S. Saunders
    • 4
  1. 1.Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical ChemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Space Research InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Lunar and Planetary LaboratoryUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  4. 4.NASA HeadquartersWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations