Russian Metallurgy (Metally)

, Volume 2019, Issue 13, pp 1452–1455 | Cite as

Designing and Calculation of Extruded Sections of an Inhomogeneous Composition

  • A. V. BabaytsevEmail author
  • A. A. Zotov


Extruded sections with various versions of reinforcing elements are considered. In particular, a T‑shaped stringer made of an aluminum alloy and reinforced at its base is studied. A sample is reinforced by a wire placed along the stringer length. Wires made of titanium, nickel, and 30KhGSA steel were used a reinforcing material. Wires of two diameters, namely, 4 and 6 mm, are considered for each material. For each case, we performed numerical and analytical estimations of the temperature stresses in the composite stringer, which are caused by cooling from 500 to 0°C. The numerical calculation is conducted by the finite-element method with the Femap and Nastran software packages. The analytical calculation is executed using Hooke’s law with allowance for temperature terms and the Lamé solution. The stringer–core combination, where the core is inserted in the stringer without interference, is analyzed. Equivalent stress distributions in the stringer and the core are obtained for all versions under study. The strengths of all versions of reinforcing are estimated.


extruded sections reinforcing stringer mechanical properties FEM Hooke’s law core equivalent stresses 



  1. 1.
    H.-J. Schmidt, “Development of stringers for damage tolerance integral structures,” in Proceedings of EADS Airbus Technology Seminar on Advanced Fuselage Design (Hamburg, 2001).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Swift, Fracture Analysis of Stiffened Structure, Damage Tolerance of Metallic Structure: Analysis Methods and Application (ASTM STP, 1984).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Swift, “Fail–safe design requirements and features, regulatory requirements,” in Proceedings of International Air and Space Symposium and Exposition: The Next 100 Years (Ohio, 2003), p. 2783.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    U. G. Goranson, “Damage tolerance. Facts and fiction. 14th Plantema Memorial Lecture,” in Proceedings of the 17th Symposium of the International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue (ICAF) (Stockholm, 1993).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. G. Nesterenko and G. I. Nesterenko, “Safe operation of aircraft structures according to strength conditions,” Probl. Mashinostr. Nadezhn. Mashin, No. 1, 76–92 (2013).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. A. Zotov, Methods of Estimating and Predicting the Life of Aviation Structures of New Materials (Izd. MAI, Moscow, 2005).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. A. Zotov, Automated Calculation of the Strength and Stability of Aircraft Designs (Izd. MAI, Moscow, 1992).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Flaviu Gostin, D. Eigel, D. Grell, M. Uhlemann, E. Kerscher, J. Eckert, and A. Gebert, “Stress corrosion cracking of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A 639, 681–690 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Ruffing, A. Kobler, E. Courtois-Manara, R. Prang, C. Kübel, Y. Ivanisenko, and E. Kerscher, “Fatigue behavior of ultrafine-grained medium carbon steel with different carbide morphologies processed by high pressure torsion,” Metals 5, 891–909 (2015). www.mdpi. com/2075-4701/5/2/891. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Godard, A. Klingler, T. Junker, and E. Kerscher, “The applicability of nanoindentation for the examination of microstructured areas in CP titanium samples,” Practical Metallogr. 52 (6), 314–322 (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. F. Gostin, D. Eigel, D. Grell, M. Uhlemann, E. Kerscher, J. Eckert, and A. Gebert, “Stress-corrosion interactions in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses,” Metals 5, 1262–1278 (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Grell, P. F. Gostin, J. Eckert, A. Gebert, and E. Kerscher, “In situ electrochemical analysis during deformation of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass: a sensitive tool revealing early shear banding,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 17 (11), 1532–1535 (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Spriestersbach, A. Brodyanski, J. Lösch, M. Kopnarski, and E. Kerscher, “Very high cycle fatigue of bearing steels with artificial defects in vacuum,” Mater. Sci. Techn. 32 (11), 1111–1118 (2016). Scholar
  14. 14.
    Azhari Azmir, Schindler Christian, Godard Claudia, Gibmeier Jens, and Kerscher Eberhard, “Effect of multiple passes treatment in waterjet peening on fatigue performance,” Appl. Surf. Sci. A 388, 468–474 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. Dabrock, L. Hagymási, T. Krug, F. Sarfert, and E. Kerscher, “Dry austempering heat treatment process: interactions between process parameters, transformation kinetics, and mechanical properties,” Metallurgia Italiana 10, 49–56 (2015).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Daubach Kevin, Gummel Anuschka, Kohns Lukas, and Kerscher Eberhard, “Failure analysis on a fractured rim star of a formula student racing car,” Practical Metallogr. 53 (2), 98–111 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. V. Babaytsev, M. I. Martirosov, L. N. Rabinskiy, and Y. O. Solyaev, “Effect of thin polymer coatings on the mechanical properties of steel plates,” Russian Metallurgy (Metally) 2017 (13), 1170–1175 (2017). Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. Lomakin, L. N. Rabinskiy, and V. Radchenko, “Analytical estimates of the contact zone area for a pressurized flat-oval cylindrical shell placed between two parallel rigid plates,” Meccanica 53 (15), 3831–3838 (2018). Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. V. Babaytsev, M. V. Prokofiev, and L. N. Rabinskiy, “Mechanical properties and microstructure of stainless steel manufactured by selective laser sintering,” International Journal of Nanomechanics Science and Technology 8 (4), 359–366 (2017). Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. I. Koshoridze, Y. K. Levin, and L. N. Rabinskiy, “Investigation of deposits in channels of panels of a heat-transfer agent,” Russian Metallurgy (Metally) 2017 (13), 1194–1201 (2017). Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)MoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations