Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A

, Volume 86, Issue 9, pp 1385–1398 | Cite as

The nature of hydrogen bonds and conjugation in H-bonded systems

  • Yu. V. Novakovskaya
Materials of Jubilee 250th National Workshop on Studying the Structures of Liquids and Solutions


Analysis of the electron density distributions in the spatial regions of hydrogen bonds reveals the existence of both σ and π binding. The σ-type electron density distribution is shown to be determined by occupied orbitals of both bonding and antibonding character. The π system can be conjugated and provides the predominant binding of molecules in nonplanar structures. The mutual orientation of the molecules involved in a hydrogen bond is found to be optimal when the X-H bond in the proton donor and the orbital of the acceptor, the main contributor to σ binding, have a common axis of symmetry. The conjugated π electron system in molecular clusters determines the so-called cooperativity that is manifested in the deviation of the properties of hydrogen-bonded systems from pairwise additivity.


hydrogen bond conjugation cooperativity electron density distribution 


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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