Advertisement

Journal of Ichthyology

, Volume 59, Issue 5, pp 786–804 | Cite as

Seasonal Trophodynamics of the Upper Epipelagic Nekton Community in the Western Bering Sea

  • S. V. NaydenkoEmail author
  • A. A. Somov
Article
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

Complex ecosystem analysis which includes total abundance estimation of its members as well as their quantitative trophic relationships gives an insight to ecosystem structure, its dynamic and steadiness and allows to compare large marine ecosystems. In this paper we aim to reveal and quantify the seasonal dynamics of main trophic web components and to estimate nekton (fish and squids) food capacity throughout the summer-autumn in upper epipelagic layer of deep basins in the Western Bering Sea. We used nekton and plankton abundance data as well as nekton diet data obtained in June-October throughout 2003–2015. Log-transformed abundance were averaged by 10-day periods considering the probability of occurrence of given species. We have found that the total biomass of nekton and the species ratio showed severe changes within summer-autumn. Total biomass reached the maximum in August showing two- or three-time increase from early-summer and followed by the similar decrease in autumn. The total food consumption changed in the same way. However, the grazing pressure on prey was very low as the consumer/prey biomass ratio approached zero. In addition, we have recognized diet divergence both between species and within size group of one specie. We conclude that the spatio-temporal separation of mass nekton species and differences in their diet lead to alleviation of trophic competition and grazing pressure.

Keywords:

fish squid Teuthida plankton nekton trophic relationships food capacity food competition upper epipelagial the Bering Sea 

Notes

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are grateful to all participants of voyages in the Bering Sea and in Pacific waters for collection and primary processing of the material used in the present study.

COMPLIANCE WITH ETHICAL STANDARDS

Conflict of interest. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Statement of the welfare of animals. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Aksyutina, Z.M., Elementy matematicheskoi otsenki rezul’tatov nablyudenii v biologicheskikh i rybokhozyaistvennykh issledovaniyakh (Elements of Mathematical Evaluation of the Observation Results in Biological and Fishery Studies), Moscow: Pishchevaya Prom-st’, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aydin, K.Y., Lapko, V.V., Radchenko, V.I., and Livingston, P.A., A Comparison of the Eastern Bering and Western Bering Sea Shelf and Slope Ecosystems Through the Use of Mass-Balance Food Web Models, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-130, Springfield, VA: U.S. Dep. Commerce, 2002.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Birman, I.B., Morskoi period zhizni i voprosy dinamiki stada tikhookeanskikh lososei (Marine Life Period and Herd dynamics of Pacific Salmons), Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1985.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bugaev, V.F., Vronskii, B.B., Zavarina, L.O., et al., Ryby reki Kamchatka (chislennost’, promysel, problemy) (Fishes from the Kamchatka River: Abundance, Fishery, and Problems), Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski: Kamchatpress, 2007.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References, Version 03/2018, Fricke, R., Eschmeyer, W.N., and van der Laan, R., Eds., 2018. http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chereshnev, I.A., Volobuev, V.V., Shestakiv, A.V., and Frolov, S.V., Lososevidnye ryby Severo-Vostoka Rossii (Salmon-Like Fishes of the Northeastern Russia), Vladivostok: Dal’nauka, 2002.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chuchukalo, V.I. Claculation methods of diurnal food diet of fishes, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 1996, vol. 119, pp. 289–305.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chuchukalo, V.I. Pitanie i pishchevye otnosheniya nektona i nektobentosa v dal’nevostochnykh moryakh (Feeding and Trophic Relations of Nekton and Nektobenthos in Far Eastern Seas), Vladivostok: TINRO Tsentr, 2006.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chuchukalo, V.I., Kuznetsova, N.A., and Napazakov, V.V., Seasonal distribution of euphausiids in the Bering and Okhotsk seas and the adjacent waters of the Pacific Ocean, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 1996, vol. 119, pp. 256–281.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dulepova, E.P., Trophic relations of mass salmon species in the Bering Sea in summer, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 1998, vol. 124, pp. 614–623.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Efimkin, A.Ya., Feeding and trophic relations of mass species of nekton in the epipelagial of the Bering Sea, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Vladivostok: TINRO Center, 2006.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gascuel, D. and Pauly, D., EcoTroph: modeling marine ecosystem functioning and impact of fishing, Ecol. Model., 2009, vol. 220, pp. 2885–2898.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.07.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Glebov, I.I., Distribution and migration of the sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from the western part of the Bering Sea in summer–autumn 2002–2006, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2007a, vol. 151, pp. 61–74.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Glebov, I.I., Distribution and migration of the coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the western part of the Bering Sea in summer–autumn 2002–2006, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2007b, vol. 151, pp. 75–82.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Glebov, I.I., Distribution and migration of the chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the western part of the Bering Sea in summer–autumn 2002–2006, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2007c, vol. 151, pp. 83–95.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Glebov, I.I., Savinykh, V.F., and Baitalyuk, A.A., Subtropical migrants in the southwestern part of the Bering Sea, J. Ichthyol., 2010, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 430–444.  https://doi.org/10.1134/S0032945210060020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gorbatenko, K.M., Feeding of pink salmon juveniles in the epipelagial of the Sea of Okhotsk in winter period, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 1996, vol. 119, pp. 234–243.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Karpenko, V.I., Andrievskaya, L.D., and Koval’, M.V., Pitanie i osobennosti rosta tikhookeanskikh lososei v morskikh vodakh (Feeding and Specific Growth of Pacific Salmon in the Seas), Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski: Kamchat. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2013.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Klovach, N.V., Ekologicheskie posledstviya krupnomasshtabnogo razvedeniya kety (Ecological Consequences of Large-Scale Reproduction of Chum Salmon), Moscow: VNIRO, 2003.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kogan, A.V., Diurnal diet and feeding rhythm of the sabrefish in Tsymlyansk Reservoir, Zool. Zh., 1963, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 596–601.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Makrofauna pelagiali zapadnoi chasti Beringova morya: tablitsy vstrechaemosti, chislennosti i biomassy, 1982–2009 (Macrofauna of Pelagial of the Western Part of the Bering Sea: Tables of Occurrence, Abundance, and Biomass, 1982–2009), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Vladivostok: TINRO Tsentr, 2012.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mel’nikov, I.V. and Efimkin, A.Ya., The young of the northern Atka mackerel Pleurogrammus monopterygius in the epipelagic zone over deep-sea areas of the Northern Pacific Ocean, J. Ichthyol., 2003, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 424–437.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Naumenko, N.I., Abundance dynamics of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Val. in the western part of the Bering Sea, Issled. Vodn. Biol. Resur. Kamchat. Sev.-Zap. Chasti Tikhogo Okeana, 2010, no. 16, pp. 140–145.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Naydenko, S.V., Role of Pacific salmons in trophic structure of the epipelagial of the western part of the Bering Sea in summer–autumn 2002–2006, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2007, vol. 151, pp. 214–239.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Naydenko, S.V., The role of Pacific salmon in trophic structure of the upper epipelagic layer in the Western Bering Sea during summer-autumn 2002–2006, NPAFC Bull., 2009, no. 5, pp. 231–241.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Naydenko, S.V., The feeding habits of the Pacific salmon, their trophic status and role in the North Pacific marine ecosystem, in Salmon: Biology, Nutrition, and Consumption, Fish, Fishing and Fisheries Series, Lacopo P. and Riemma M., Eds., New York: Nova Science, 2010, pp. 61–100.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Naydenko, S.V., Efimkin, A.Ya., Volkov, A.F., et al., Trophic position of Pacific salmon juveniles in the western Bering Sea epipelagic communities during autumn, NPAFC Tech. Rep., 2007, no. 7, pp. 40–41.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Naydenko, S.V., Efimkin, A.Ya., Lazhentsev, A.E., et al., Selective nutrition of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) juveniles in Far Eastern seas, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2008, vol. 152, pp. 18–36.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nekton zapadnoi chasti Beringova morya. Tablitsy chislennosti, biomassy i sootnosheniya vidov (Nekton of the Western Part of the Bering Sea: Tables of Abundance, Biomass, and Species Ratio), Shuntov, V.P. and Bocharov, L.N., Eds., Vladivostok: TINRO Tsentr, 2006.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nesis, K.N., Gonatid squids in the subarctic north Pacific: ecology, biogeography, niche diversity and role in the ecosystem, Adv. Mar. Biol., 1997, vol. 32, pp. 243–324.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2881(08)60018-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nikol’skii, G.V., The pattern of trophic relations between freshwater fishes, in Ocherki po obshchim voprosam ikhtiologii (Essays on the General Problems in Ichthyology), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1953, pp. 261–281.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Radchenko, V.I., Composition, structure and dynamics of nektonic communities of epipelagial of the Bering Sea, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Vladivostok: TINRO Center, 1994.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Radchenko, V.I., Ecopath model as a prospective tool for a comparative study of the functions of the ecosystems of the Okhotsk and Bering seas, Materialy 1-i otkrytoi mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii “Perspektivnye metody otsenki izmenenii geofizicheskikh yavlenii, ekosistem i tekhnologicheskikh protsessov pri izuchenii i osvoenii prirodnykh resursov subarkticheskogo Okhotomor’ya” (Proc. First Open Int. Conf. “Advanced Evaluation Methods of Dynamics of Geophysical Phenomena, Ecosystems, and Technological Processes in the Study and Exploration of Natural Resources of Subarctic Zone of the Sea of Okhotsk”), Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 2011, pp. 70–81.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Radchenko, V.I., Modeling of characteristics of the Sea of Okhotsk ecosystem, Tr. VNIRO, 2015, vol. 155, pp. 79–111.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Radchenko, V.I., Volkov, A.F., and Figurkin, A.L., Specific seasonal conditions of planktonic and fish communities of the epipelagial of the Bering Sea, in Ekologiya morei Rossii. Kompleksnye issledovaniya ekosistemy Beringova morya (Ecology of the Russian Seas: complex Studies of the Bering Sea Ecosystem), Moscow: VNIRO, 1995, pp. 326–335.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Romanova, G.P., Nutrition of perch fingerlings in Rybinsk Reservoir, Tr. Biol. Stn. Borok, Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1958, no. 3, pp. 20–25.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rukovodstvo po izucheniyu pitaniya ryb (Manual for Analysis of Fish Nutrition), Vladivostok: Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 1986.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shebanova, M.A., Chuchukalo, V.I., and Gorbatenko, K.M., Life cycles and somatic production of hyperiid amphipods in the Okhotsk and Bering seas, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2014, vol. 176, pp. 155–176.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shuntov, V.P., Biologiya dal’nevostochnykh morei Rossii (Biology of Far Eastern Seas of Russia), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2001, vol. 1.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shuntov, V.P., Biologiya dal’nevostochnykh morei Rossii (Biology of Far Eastern Seas of Russia), Vladivostok: TINRO-Tsentr, 2001, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shuntov, V.P. and Temnykh, O.S., Long-term dynamics of biota of macroecosystems of the Bring Sea and its environmental factor, Part 2. Modern status of pelagic and bottom communities of the Bering Sea, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2008a, vol. 155, pp. 33–65.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shuntov, V.P. and Temnykh, O.S., Tikhookeanskie lososi v morskikh i okeanicheskikh sistemakh (Pacific Salmons in Marine and Oceanic Ecosystems), Vladivostok: TINRO Tsentr, 2008a, vol. 1.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shuntov, V.P. and Temnykh, O.S., Tikhookeanskie lososi v morskikh i okeanicheskikh sistemakh (Pacific Salmons in Marine and Oceanic Ecosystems), Vladivostok: TINRO Tsentr, 2011, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shuntov, V.P., Volkov, A.F., Matveev, V.I., et al., Productive zone in the Sea of Okhotsk in autumn, Biol. Morya (Vladivostok), 1986, no. 4, pp. 57–65.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Shuntov, V.P., Volkov, A.F., and Efimkin, A.Ya., Composition and modern state of pelagic fish communities of the western part of the Bering Sea, Biol. Morya (Vladivostok), 1988a, no. 2, pp. 56–65.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shuntov, V.P., Volkov, A.F., and Efimkin, A.Ya., The composition and current state of the Pacific pelagial fish communities in Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands, Biol. Morya (Vladivostok), 1988b, no. 4, pp. 54–62.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shuntov, V.P., Volkov, A.F., Temnykh, O.S., and Dulepova, E.P., Mintai v ekosistemakh dal’nevostochnykh morei (Walleye Pollock in Ecosystems of Far Eastern Seas), Vladivostok: Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 1993.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shuntov, V.P., Temnykh, O.S., Naydenko, S.V., et al., Substantiation of ecological capacity of the Far Eastern seas and subarctic Pacific for large-scale farming of Pacific salmons, Part 4. Influence of density on food supply for Pacific salmons and their role in food consumption of nekton, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2010, vol. 161, pp. 25–52.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Somov, A.A., The seasonal dynamics of the abundance and species composition of nekton in the upper epipelagic layer of the western Bering Sea, Russ. J. Mar. Biol., 2017, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 535–554.  https://doi.org/10.1134/S1063074017070057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Starovoitov, A.N., The chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) in Far Eastern seas: biological characteristic of species. 1. Seasonal distribution and migration of chum salmon in Far Eastern seas and open waters of northwestern Pacific, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2003a, vol. 132, pp. 43–81.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Starovoitov, A.N., The chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) in Far Eastern seas: biological characteristic of species. 2. Nutrition and trophic relations of the chum salmon in the epipelagial of Far Eastern seas and adjacent waters of the Pacific Ocean, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2003b, vol. 133, pp. 3–34.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Starovoitov, A.N., Somov, A.A., Emelin, P.O., and Maznikova, O.A., Pacific salmons within the nekton of upper epipelagial of the southwestern part of the Bering Sea in October 2014, in Byulleten’ no. 9 izucheniya tikhookeanskikh lososei na Dal’nem Vostoke (Bulletin No. 9 of the Study of Pacific Salmons of the Far East), Vladivostok: TINRO Tsentr, 2014, pp. 173–184.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stepanenko, M.A., Interannual variability of spatial differentiation of the Alaska pollock Theragra chalcogramma and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua from the Bering Sea, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1997, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 19–26.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stepanenko, M.A., Resources, interannual variability of abundance, and commercial use of walleye pollock from East Bering Sea population in 80–90’s, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2001, vol. 128, pp. 145–152.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Volkov, A.F., Specific feeding of the pink, chum, and sockeye salmons during anadromous migrations, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 1994, vol. 116, pp. 128–136.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Volkov, A.F., Sampling method of zooplankton, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 1996, vol. 119, pp. 306–311.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Volkov, A.F., The method of collection and processing of plankton and samples of nekton feeding: step-by-step instruction, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2008, vol. 154, pp. 405–416.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Volkov, A.F., Introduction to walleye pollock trophology, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2015, vol. 183, pp. 166–185.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Volkov, A.F., Gorbatenko, K.M., and Efimkin, A.Ya., Nutrition strategy of walleye pollock, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 1990, vol. 111, pp. 123–132.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Volkov, A.F., Efimkin, A.Ya., and Chuchukalo, V.I., Regional features of nutriting of Asian salmons in summer, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 1997, vol. 122, pp. 324–341.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Volvenko, I.V., Quantitative evaluation of fish abundance according to trawl surveys, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 1998, vol. 124, pp. 473–500.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Volvenko, I.V., Morphometric characteristics of standards of biostatistical regions for biocenotic studies of fishery zone of Russian Far East, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2003, vol. 132, pp. 27–42.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Volvenko, I.V., Use of new database on the net zooplankton from Far Eastern seas and adjacent waters of Pacific Ocean, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2016, vol. 187, pp. 19–47.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Watanabe, H., Kubodera, T., Moku, M., and Kawaguchi, K., Diel vertical migration of squid in the warm core ring and cold water masses in the transition region of the western North Pacific, Mar. Ecol.: Progr. Ser., 2006, vol. 315, pp. 187–197.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps315187
  65. 65.
    Zavolokin A.V., Selectivity of nutrition and food availability for Pacific salmons in the Russian zone of the Bering Sea, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Vladivostok: TINRO Center, 2008.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zavolokin, A.V., Comparative characteristics of food supply of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Bering Sea from 2002 to 2006, J. Ichthyol., 2011, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 227–219.  https://doi.org/10.1134/S0032945211010152 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zavolokin, A.V., Food availability for Pacific salmons during marine and ocean fattening period, Extended Abstract of Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation, Vladivostok: TINRO Center, 2014.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zavolokin, A.V. and Glebov, I.I., Low nekton abundance in the Western Bering Sea according to trawl survey data and model estimates, Russ. J. Mar. Biol., 2009, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 558–573.  https://doi.org/10.1134/S1063074009070050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zavolokin, A.V., Radchenko, V.I., and Kulik, V.V., Dynamics of the trophic structure of the epipelagic community of the western part of the Bering Sea, Izv. Tikhookean. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Rybn. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2014, vol. 179, pp. 204–219.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zavolokin, A.V., Radchenko, V.I., and Naydenko, S.V., Changes in the trophic structure of an epipelagic community in the western Bering Sea and western North Pacific Ocean with an emphasis on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), NPAFC Bull., 2016, no. 6, pp. 259–278.  https://doi.org/10.23849/npafcb6/259.278
  71. 71.
    Zheltenkova, M.V., Critical assessment of the modern study methods of the nutrition of fish in natural conditions, Trudy soveshchaniya po metodike izucheniya kormovoi bazy i pitaniya ryb (Proc. Meeting on the Study Methods of Food Resources and Feeding of Fishes), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1955a, pp. 22–39.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zheltenkova, M.V., Nutrition and use of food resources by bottom fishes in the Sea of Azov, Tr. VNIRO, 1955b, vol. 31, pp. 306–336.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zheltenkova, M.V., Specific fattening of fishes and rational use of natural reservoir resources, in Trofologiya vodnykh zhivotnykh. Itogi i zadachi (Trophology of Aquatic Animals: Results and Objectives), Moscow: Nauka, 1973, pp. 276–298.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zuev, M.A., Katugin, O.N., Shevtsov, G.A., and Dakus, A.V., Distribution and differentiation of the boreopacific armhook squid Boreoteuthis borealis (Sasaki, 1923) (Cephalopoda, Gonatidae) in the Sea of Okhotsk and the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean, Tr. VNIRO, 2007, vol. 147, pp. 266–283.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific Fisheries Research Center (TINRO-Center)VladivostokRussia

Personalised recommendations