Journal of Ichthyology

, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 127–138 | Cite as

Basking Shark (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the Lower Oligocene of the Caucasus

  • A. M. ProkofievEmail author
  • E. K. Sychevskaya


Based on an almost complete impression from the base of the Pshekha Horizon (layer 2, Planorbella Beds, zone NP 21) of the North Caucasus (lower early Oligocene), we describe the basking shark Caucasochasma zherikhini gen. et sp. nov., differing from other members of family Cetorhinidae by higher number of vertebrae, weakly developed lower lobe of caudal fin, and details of the structure of gill rakers. Based on the structure of the body, it is not excluded that the described taxon was associated with the bottom to a greater degree than other species of the family (Keasius parvus and C. maximus), for which the structure of the body is known. The accumulations of plankton at the bottom could be a possible food resource for Caucasochasma.


Neoselachii Cetorhinidae new genus and species postcranial skeleton gill rakers Rupelian Pshekha Horizon of the North Caucasus paleoecology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Banse, K., On the vertical distribution of zooplankton in the sea, Progr. Oceanogr., 1964, vol. 2, pp. 55–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beyer, F., A new, bottom-living Trachymedusa from the Oslo fjord, Nytt. Mag. Zool., 1958, vol. 6, pp. 121–143.Google Scholar
  3. Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, M. and Radwańsky, A., A new occurrence of sharks in the Menilite Formation (Lower Oligocene) from the Outer (Flysch) Carpathians of Poland, Acta Geol. Pol., 2009, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 235–243.Google Scholar
  4. Cione, A.L. and Reguero, M.A., A middle Eocene basking shark (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from Antarctica, Antarct. Sci., 1998, vol. 10, pp. 83–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Compagno, L.J.V., Sharks of the World. An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date, Vol. 2: Bullhead, Mackerel and Carpet Sharks (Heterodontifromes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes), Rome: Food Agric. Org., 2002.Google Scholar
  6. Hovestadt, D.C. and Hovestadt-Euler, M., A partial skeleton of Cetorhinus parvus Leriche, 1910 (Chondrichthyes, Cetorhinidae) from the Oligocene of Germany, Paläontol. Z., 2012, vol. 86, pp. 71–83.Google Scholar
  7. Kiselev, I.A., Plankton morei i kontinental’nykh vodoemov (Plankton of the Seas and Continental Reservoirs), Leningrad: Nauka, 1980, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  8. Lohmann, H., Beiträge zur Charakterisierung des Tierund Pflanzen lebens in den von der “Deutschland” während ihrer Fahrt nach Buenos-Aires durchfahrenden Gebieten des Atlantischen Ozeans. Teil. I, Int. Rev. Gesamten Hydrobiol., 1912, vol. 4, nos. 5–6, pp. 407–432.Google Scholar
  9. Nazarkin, M.V., Gill rakers of basking sharks (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the Tertiary of Sakhalin Island, Russia, Zoosyst. Ross., 2014, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 269–275.Google Scholar
  10. Popov, S.V., Akhmet’ev, M.A., Zaporozhets, N.I., et al., Lektostratotype of the Maikop series: a section along the Belaya River above Maikop city (Adygea, Western Ciscaucasia), Stratigr. Geol. Korrel., 2018, vol. 26, (in press).Google Scholar
  11. Přikryl, T., An annotated list of the Oligocene fish fauna from the Osičko locality (Menilitic Fm.; Moravia, the Czech Republic), Acta Mus. Natl. Pragae, Ser. B, 2013, vol. 69, no. 3–4, pp. 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Prokofiev, A.M., Fossil meso-and bathypelagic fishes (orders Stomiiformes and Myctophiformes) Paleogene–Neogene of Russia and adjacent countries, Extended Abstract of Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow: Paleontol. Inst., Russ. Acad. Sci., 2004.Google Scholar
  13. Prokofiev, A.M., The role of meso-and bathypelagic fishes for paleoecological and paleogeographic reconstructions, VII Vserossiiskaya nauchnaya shkola molodykh uchenykh paleontologov “Sovremennaya paleontologiya: klassicheskie i noveishie metody–2006” (VII All-Russ. Sci. School of Young Paleontologists “Modern Paleontology: Classical and Newest Methods–2006”), Rozanov, A.Yu., Eds., Moscow: Paleontol. Inst., Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2006, pp. 73–86.Google Scholar
  14. Shirai, S. and Okamura, O., Anatomy of Trigonognathus kabeyai, with comments on feeding mechanism and phylogenetic relationships (Elasmobranchii, Squalidae), Jpn. J. Ichthyol., 1992, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 139–150.Google Scholar
  15. Springer, V.G. and Garrick, J.A.F., A survey of vertebral numbers in sharks, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1964, vol. 116, pp. 73–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Welton, B.J., A new archaic basking shark (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the late Eocene of western Oregon, U.S.A., and description of the dentition, gill rakers and vertebrae of the recent basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus), Bull. N. M. Mus. Nat. Hist. Sci., 2013, vol. 58, pp. 1–48.Google Scholar
  17. Welton, B.J., A new fossil basking shark (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the middle Miocene Sharktooth Hill bonebed, Kern County, California, Contrib. Sci., 2014, vol. 522, pp. 29–44.Google Scholar
  18. Welton, B.J., A new species of late early Miocene Cetorhinus (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the Astoria Formation of Oregon, and coeval Cetorhinus from Washington and California, Contrib. Sci., 2015, no. 523, pp. 67–89.Google Scholar
  19. White, W.T., Fahmi, Adrim, M., and Sumadhiharga, K., A juvenile mega-mouth shark Megachasma pelagios (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) from northern Sumatra, Indonesia, Raffles Bull. Zool., 2004, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 603–607.Google Scholar
  20. Zherikhin, V.V., Ponomarenko, A.G., and Rasnitsyn, A.P., Vvedenie v paleoentomologiyu (Introduction to Paleoentomology), Moscow: KMK, 2008.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and EvolutionRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Paleontological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations