Advertisement

Journal of Ichthyology

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 7–15 | Cite as

Characteristics of under-ice swarming of polar cod Boreogadus saida (Gadidae) in the Central Arctic Ocean

  • I. A. MelnikovEmail author
  • N. V. Chernova
Article

Abstract

Phenological observations on under-ice swarming behavior of Polar cod Boreogadus saida were performed during the winter period 2009–2010 in the Canadian sector of the Arctic Ocean on the North Pole NP-37 drifting station. These observations and ichthyologic collections were the basis of the present study. The schools were mostly formed by the immature specimens (TL = 75–169 mm; 1+ to 4+ age), the dominating group was presented by fish of 2+ age (86–94% of total abundance). The driving factors of such large under-ice swarming of Polar cod B. saida in the Arctic are discussed, particularly, the interactions of Polar cod development and the ice drift in the studied region. This species inhabits the overcooled water (−1.8°C) under the ice, so the scheme of the antifreeze agent producing in the fish blood is considered. We make assumptions about under ice migrations of Polar cod swarming.

Keywords

Polar cod Boreogadus saida Arctic sea ice drift swarming life cycle feeding adaptation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adriyashev, A.P., The Fishes of the Laptev Sea, Trudy ZIN Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1948, vol. 7, pp. 76–100.Google Scholar
  2. Adriyashev, A.P., Ryby severnykh morei SSSR. Opredeliteli po faune SSSR (Fishes of the Northern Seas of USSR: Classifier of Fauna in USSR), Leningrad: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1954, no. 53, 566 p.Google Scholar
  3. Adriyashev, A.P., Mukhomediyarov, B.F., and Pavshtiks, E.A., Mass Agglomerations of Cryopelagic Fishes Boreogadus saida and Arctogadus glacialis in Circumpolar Areas of Arctic, in Biologiya Tsentral’nogo Arkticheskogo basseina (Biology of the Central Arctic Basin), Vinogradov, M.E. and Mel’nikov, I.A., Eds., Moscow: Nauka, 1980, pp. 196–211.Google Scholar
  4. Aronovich, T.M., Doroshev, S.I., and Spektorova, L.V., Biological Features of Embryonal and Larval Development of the White Sea Fishes, in Biologiya promyslovykh ryb i bespozvonochnykh na rannikh stadiyakh razvitiya (Biology of Commercial Fishes and Invertebrates in Early Ontogenesis), Murmansk: PINRO, 1974, pp. 9–11.Google Scholar
  5. Baranenkova, A.S., Ponomarenko, V.P., and Khokhlina, N.S., Distribution, Dimensions and Growth of Larvae and Juveniles of Arctic Cod, Boreogadus saida Lep. in the Barents Sea, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1966, vol. 6,issue 6, pp. 498–518.Google Scholar
  6. Belyakov, L.I., Drift Current Under Ice of the Arctic Basin, Okeanologiya, 1974, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 256–262.Google Scholar
  7. Borkin, I.V., Ichthyoplankton of Coastal Waters of Western Spitzbergen, in Issledovaniya PINRO v raione arkhipelaga Shpitsbergen (Studies of PINRO in the Region of Spitzbergen Archipelago), Murmansk: PINRO, 2004, pp. 109–114.Google Scholar
  8. Borkin, I.V. and Oganin, I.A., Saika (The Cod), Murmansk: PINRO, 2004, pp. 129–139.Google Scholar
  9. Bradstreet, M.S.W., Finley, K.J., Sekerak, A.D., et al., Aspects of the Feeding Biology of Arctic Cod (Boreogudus suida) and Its Importance in Arctic Marine Food Chains, Can. Tech. Rept. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1986, no. 1491, 193 p.Google Scholar
  10. Burgess, J.W. and Shaw, E., Development and Ecology of Fish Schooling, Oceanus, 1979, vol. 22, pp. 11–17.Google Scholar
  11. Calvert, J.F., Surface at the Pole: The Extraordinary Voyages of the USS Skate, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960, 220 p.Google Scholar
  12. Chen, L. and De Vries, A.L., The Role of Antifreeze Glycopeptides and Peptides in the Freezing Avoidance of Cold-Water Fish, in Life Under Extreme Conditions: Biochemical Adaptation, di Pisco, G., Ed., Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1991, pp. 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, L., De Vries, A.L., and Cheng, C.-H., Convergent Evolution of Antifreeze Glycoproteins in Antarctic Notothenioid Fish and Arctic Cod, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1997, vol. 94, pp. 3817–3822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng, C.-H., Origin and Mechanism of Evolution of Antifreeze Glycoproteins in Polar Fishes, in Fishes of Antarctica. A Biological Overview, di Prisco, G., et al., Eds., Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1998, pp. 311–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Craig, P.C., Griffiths, W.B., Haldorson, L., and McElderry, H., Ecological Studies of Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) in Beaufort Sea Coastal Waters, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1982, vol. 39, pp. 395–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crawford, R.E. and Jorgenson, J.K., Quantitative Studies of Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) Schools: Important Energy Stores in the Arctic Food Web, Arctic, 1996, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 181–193.Google Scholar
  17. Cushing, D.H. and Harden, J.F.R., Why do Fish School? Nature, 1968, no. 218, pp. 918–920.Google Scholar
  18. De Vries, A.L., Glycoproteins as Biological Antifreeze Agents in Antarctic Fish, Science, 1971, vol. 172, pp. 1152–1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DeBose, J.L., Lema, S.C., and Nevitt, G.A., Dimethylsulfoniopropionate as a Foraging Cue for Reef Fishes, Science, 2008, vol. 319, vol. 319, pp. 1356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dolgov, A.V., Atlas-opredelitel’ ryb Barentseva morya (Atlas-Determinant of Fishes from the Barents Sea), Murmansk: PINRO, 2011, 188 p.Google Scholar
  21. Drifting Station “Severnyi Polyus-37”, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, 2010. http://www.aari.nw.ru/resources/d0014/np37/default.asp?id=info&lang=1
  22. Enevoldsen, L.T., Heiner, I., De Vries, A.L., and Steffensen, J.F., Does Fish from the Disco Bay Area of Greenland Posses Antifreeze Proteins during the Summer? Polar Biol., 2003, vol. 26, pp. 365–370.Google Scholar
  23. Esipov, V.K., Promyslovye ryby Barentseva morya (Commercial Fishes from the Barents Sea), Moscow: Pishchepromizdat, 1937, 110 p.Google Scholar
  24. Evseenko, S.A., Larvae and Juveniles of Fishes from Under Ice Catches in the Weddell Sea, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1993, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 724–727.Google Scholar
  25. Falk-Petersen, I.B., Frivoll, V., Gulliksen, B., and Haug, T., Occurrence and Size/Age Relations of Polar Cod, Boreogadus saida (Lepechin), in Spitzbergen Coastal Waters, Sarsia, 1986, vol. 71, pp. 235–245.Google Scholar
  26. Finley, K.J., Bradstreet, M.S.W. and Miller, G.W., Summer Feeding Ecology of Harp Seals (Phoca groenlandicus) in Relation to Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) in the Canadian High Arctic, Polar Biol., 1990, vol. 10, pp. 609–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Golikov, A.N. and Averintsev, V.G., Biocenosises of the Upper Levels of the Shelf of the Franz Joseph Land, and Some Regularities of Distribution, Issledovaniya Fauny morei, 1977, vol. 14, no. 22, pp. 5–54.Google Scholar
  28. Gradinger, R.R. and Bluhm, B.A., In Situ Observations on the Distribution and Behavior of Amphipods and Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) under the Sea Ice of the High Arctic Canada Basin, Polar Biol., 2004, vol. 27, pp. 595–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Graham, M. and Hop, H., Aspects of Reproduction and Larval Biology of Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida), Arctic, 1995, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 130–135.Google Scholar
  30. Gudkovich, Z.M. and Doronin, Yu.P. Dreif morskikh l’dov (Drift of Marine Ice), St. Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat, 2001, 112 p.Google Scholar
  31. Gulliksen, B., Under-Ice Fauna from Svalbard Waters, Sarsia, 1984, vol. 69, pp. 17–23.Google Scholar
  32. Hemelrijk, C.K., Hildenbrandt, H., Reinders, J., and Stamhuis, E.J., Emergence of Oblong School Shape: Models and Empirical Data of Fish, Ethology, 2010, vol. 116, pp. 1099–1112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jensen, A.S., Contributions to the Ichthyofauna of Greenland, 8–24, in Spolia Zoologica Musei Hauniensis, 1948, vol. 9, 182 p.Google Scholar
  34. Jin, Y. and De Vries, A.L., Antifreeze Protein Levels in Antarctic Notothenioid Fish Inhabiting Different Thermal Environments and the Effect of Warm Acclimation, Biochem. Physiol., B, 2006, vol. 144, pp. 290–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kasumyan, A.O., Gustatory Reception and Food Behavior of Fishes, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1997, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 78–93.Google Scholar
  36. Klumov, S.K., The Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida Lepechin, 1774) and Its significance for Some Life Processes in Arctic, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Biol., 1937, no. 1, pp. 175–195.Google Scholar
  37. Lønne, O.J. and Gulliksen, B., Size, Age and Diet of Polar Cod, Boreogadus saida (Lepechin 1774), in Ice Covered Waters, Polar Biol., 1989, vol. 9, pp. 187–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mel’nikov, I.A., Peculiarities of Distribution and Behavior of Cryopelagic Fauna Under Drifting Arctic Ice, Zool. Zh., 1984, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 16–21.Google Scholar
  39. Mel’nikov, I.A., Ekosistemy arkticheskogo morskogo l’da (Ecosystems of Arctic Marine Ice), Moscow: IO RAN, 1989, 191 p.Google Scholar
  40. Melnikov, I.A., Ecology of Arctic Ocean Cryopelagic Fauna, in The Arctic Seas: Climatology, Oceanography, Geology and Biology, Herman, I., Ed., New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989, pp. 235–255.Google Scholar
  41. Mel’nikov, I.A., Present Ecosystem of Arctic Marine Ice: Dynamics and Forecast, Dokl. RAN, 2008, vol. 423, no. 6, pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
  42. Mel’nikov, I.A. and Kulikov, A.S., Cryopelagic Fauna of the Central Arctic Basin, in Biologiya Tsentral’nogo Arkticheskogo basseina (Biology of the Central Arctic Basin), Vinogradov, M.E. and Mel’nikova, I.A., Eds., Moscow: Nauka, 1980, pp. 97–111.Google Scholar
  43. Melnikov, I.A. and Spiridonov, V.V., Antarctic Krill, Euphausia superb Dana (Crustacea Euphausiacea) under Perennial Sea Ice in the Western Weddell Sea, Antarctic Sci., 1996, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 323–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moskalenko, B.K., Biology of the Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida, Lepechin, 1774), Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1964, vol. 4,issue 3 (32), pp. 433–443.Google Scholar
  45. Osuga, D.T. and Fenney, R.E., Antifreeze Glycoproteins from Arctic Fish, J. Biol. Chem., 1978, no. 253, pp. 5338–5343.Google Scholar
  46. Pokrovskii, S.I., The Polar Cod, Za Rybnuyu Industriyu Severa, 1936, no. 1, pp. 28–30.Google Scholar
  47. Ponomarenko, V.P., Regions of Autumn-Winter Distribution of Cod in the South Barents Sea as the Indicator of Spring Distribution of Capelin and Immature Cod Alongside the Coasts, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1967, vol. 7,issue 6(47), pp. 1073–1079.Google Scholar
  48. Ponomarenko, V.P., Migration of Cod in the Soviet Sector of Arctic, Trudy PINRO, 1968, issue 23, pp. 505–512.Google Scholar
  49. Praebel, K. and Ramlov, H., Antifreeze Activity in the Gastrointestinal Fluids of Arctogadus glacialis (Peters 1874) is Dependent on Food Type, J. Environ. Biol., 2005, vol. 208, pp. 2609–2613.Google Scholar
  50. Rass, T.S., Spawning, Roe and Juveniles of Commercial Fishes in the Barents Sea, Karelo-Murmanskii Krai, 1934, nos. 3–4, pp. 58–60.Google Scholar
  51. Rass, T.S., The Data on the Cod Reproduction, Roe, Larvae and Juveniles Distribution in the Barents Sea, turdy VNIRO, 1949, vol. 27, pp. 69–138.Google Scholar
  52. Svetovidov, A.N., Gadiformes, in Fauna SSSR. Ryby (Fauna of USSR: Fishes), Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1948, vol. 9,issue 4, 222 p.Google Scholar
  53. Welch, H.E., Bergmann, M.A., Siferd, T.D., et al., Energy Flow Through the Marine Ecosystem of the Lancaster Sound Region, Arctic Canada, Arctic, 1992, vol. 45, pp. 343–357.Google Scholar
  54. Welch, H.E., Crawford, R.E., and Hop, H., Occurrence of Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) Schools and Their Vulnerability to Predation in the Canadian High Arctic, Arctic, 1993, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 331–339.Google Scholar
  55. Wöhrmann, A.P.A., Freezing Resistance in Antarctic Fish, in Antarctic Communities. Species, Structure and Survival, Bataglia, B., et al., Eds., Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1997, pp. 209–216.Google Scholar
  56. Yudanov, I.G., Zoogeographic of the Arctic Cod (or Polar Cod) in the Arctic Ocean, in Priroda i khozyaistvo Severa (Nature and Economy of the North), Murmansk: Murman. Knizh. Izd., 1976, issue 4, pp. 111–113.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shirshov Institute of OceanologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Zoological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations