Journal of Ichthyology

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 7–15 | Cite as

Characteristics of under-ice swarming of polar cod Boreogadus saida (Gadidae) in the Central Arctic Ocean

  • I. A. MelnikovEmail author
  • N. V. Chernova


Phenological observations on under-ice swarming behavior of Polar cod Boreogadus saida were performed during the winter period 2009–2010 in the Canadian sector of the Arctic Ocean on the North Pole NP-37 drifting station. These observations and ichthyologic collections were the basis of the present study. The schools were mostly formed by the immature specimens (TL = 75–169 mm; 1+ to 4+ age), the dominating group was presented by fish of 2+ age (86–94% of total abundance). The driving factors of such large under-ice swarming of Polar cod B. saida in the Arctic are discussed, particularly, the interactions of Polar cod development and the ice drift in the studied region. This species inhabits the overcooled water (−1.8°C) under the ice, so the scheme of the antifreeze agent producing in the fish blood is considered. We make assumptions about under ice migrations of Polar cod swarming.


Polar cod Boreogadus saida Arctic sea ice drift swarming life cycle feeding adaptation 


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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shirshov Institute of OceanologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Zoological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia

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