Advertisement

Journal of Ichthyology

, Volume 51, Issue 11, pp 1126–1132 | Cite as

Behavioral control of the efficiency of pharmacological anesthesia in fish

  • L. S. Chervova
  • D. N. Lapshin
Article

Abstract

An original behavioral test was used to study the effect of opioid substances on the thresholds of nociceptive responses to pain stimuli—a series of electric impulses applied to nerve endings of the caudal fin—in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The substances tested included tramadol (μ-agonist of opioid receptors), DADLE (δ-agonist), and U-50488 (κ-agonist) injected intramuscularly in concentrations 10–100 nmol/g of body weight. Raised thresholds of sensitivity to the pain stimulus were observed in the studied fish 5 to 15 min after the injection. The degree of analgesia and the rate of its increase varied depending on the dose. The total duration of analgesia was 40 to 90 min and depended on the concentration of the injected substance. It was observed in some experiments that the analgesic effect of tramadol (the most efficient of the analgesics used) could last longer than 4 h. The analgesic effect of opioids was not detected in experiments where they were applied together with naloxone, an antagonist of opioids. Decreased motor response to pain stimuli after injections of analgesics was not caused by the immobilization of the animal, because the tested fish individuals released into an aquarium demonstrated normal swimming and their usual behavior. We concluded that the systems of opioid nociceptive regulation function similarly in fish and land vertebrates. This regulation can play an important role in defense behavior and in other behaviors in fish.

Keywords

fish nociception pain analgesia opioids tramadol behavioral test Cyprinus carpio 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Chandroo, K.P., Duncan, I.J.H., and Moccia, R.D., Can Fish Suffer?: Perspectives on Sentience, Pain, Fear, and Stress, Appl. Animal Behav. Sci., 2004, vol. 86, pp. 225–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Charpentier, J., Analysis and Measurement of Pain in Animals, a New Conception of Pain, Pain, Soulairac, A., et al., Eds., L.: Acad. Press, 1968, pp. 171–200.Google Scholar
  3. Chervova, L.S., Electrophysiological Investigation of the Trigeminal Nerve Innervated the Olfactory Organ of White Sea Cod Gadus morhua marisalbi, J. Ichthyol., 1985, vol. 25. No. 4, pp. 293–298.Google Scholar
  4. Chervova, L.S., Pain Sensitivity and Behavior of Fishes, J. Ichthyol., 1997, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 98–102.Google Scholar
  5. Chervova, L.S., Kamenskii, A.A., Malyukina, G.A., et al., Investigation of the Mechanism of Intranasal Effect of Dermorphin in Representatives of Two Classes of Vertebrates, Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol., 1992, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 45–48.Google Scholar
  6. Chervova, L.S., Lapshin, D.N., and Kamenskii, A.A., Pain Sensitivity of Trout and Analgesia Induced by Intranasal Administration of Dermorphine, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 1994, vol. 338, pp. 424–425.Google Scholar
  7. Chervova, L.S. and Lapshin, D.N., Opioid Modulation of Nociceptive Thresholds in Fishes, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 2000, vol. 375, pp. 290–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Correia, A.D., Cunha, S.R., Scholze, M., and Don Stevens, E., A Novel Fish Behavioral Model of Nociception for Testing Analgetics, Pharmaceuticals, 2011, vol. 4, pp. 665–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunlop, R. and Laming, P., Mechanoreceptive and Nociceptive Responses in the Central Nervous System of Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), J. Pain., 2005, vol. 6, pp. 561–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. VIIth Congress on Biology of Fish, 2006, 18–22 July, St.-John’s, Canada, Abstracts.Google Scholar
  11. Guo, S., Linking Genes to Brain, Behavior and Neurological Diseases: What Can We Learn from Zebrafish? Genes Brain Behavior, 2004, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Koob, G.F. Sanna, P.P., and Bloom, F.E., Neuroscience of Addiction, Neuron, 1998, vol. 21, pp. 467–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lynn, B., The Fibre Composition of Cutaneous Nerves and the Classification and Response Properties of Cutaneous Afferents, with Particular Reference to Nociception, Pain Rev., 1994, vol. 1, pp. 172–183.Google Scholar
  14. Newby, N.C., Mendonça, P.C., Gamperl, K., and Stevens, D.E., Pharmacokinetics of Morphine in Fish: Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and Seawater-Acclimated Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Comp. Biochem. Physiol., C, 2006, vol. 143, pp. 275–283.Google Scholar
  15. Newby, N.C., Robinson, J.W., Vachon, P., et al., Pharmacokinetics of Morphine and Its Metabolites in Freshwater Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, J. Vet. Pharnacol. Therap., 2008, vol. 31, pp. 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Newby, N.C., Wilkie, M.P., and Don Stevens, E., Morphine Uptake, Disposition, and Analgesic Efficacy in the Common Goldfish (Carassius auratus), Can. J. Zool., 2009, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 388–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Roques, J.A.C., Abbink, W., Geurds, F., et al., Tailfin Clipping, a Painful Procedure: Studies on Nile Tilapia and Common Carp., Physiol. Behav., 2010, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 533–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rose, J.D., The Neurobehavioral Nature of Fishes and the Question of Awareness and Pain, Rev. Fish. Sci., 2002, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sneddon, L.U., Trigeminal Somatosensory Innervation of the Head of a Teleost Fish with Particular Reference to Nociception, Brain Res., 2003a, vol. 972, pp. 44–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sneddon, L.U., The Evidence for Pain in Fish: the Use of Morphine as an Analgesic, Appl. Animal Behav. Sci., 2003b, vol. 83, pp. 153–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sneddon, L.U., Evolution of Nociception in Vertebrates: Comparative Analysis of Lower Vertebrates, Brain Res. Rev., 2004, vol. 46, pp. 123–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sneddon, L.U., Braithwaite, V.A., and Gentle, M.J., Novel Object Test: Examining Nociception and Fear in the Rainbow Trout, J. Pain., 2003, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 431–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Souza, M.J. and Cox, S.K., Tramadol Use in Zoologic Medicine, Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, 2011, vol. 14, pp. 117–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stevens, C.W., Non-Mammalian Models for the Study of pain, Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research, Chapter 39, Conn, P.M., Ed., Towata, NJ, USA: Humana, 2008, pp. 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stevens, C.W., The Evolution of Vertebrate Opioid Receptors, Frontiers Biosci., 2009, vol. 14, (Special Issue “Regulation and Function of Opioid Receptor Genes”), pp. 1247–1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of BiologyMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute)MoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations