Advertisement

Paleontological Journal

, Volume 52, Issue 10, pp 1148–1161 | Cite as

The Biostratigraphic Paradox of Precambrian Cyanobacteria: Distinguishing the Succession of Microfossil Assemblages and Evolutionary Changes Observed among Proterozoic Prokaryotic Microorganisms

  • V. N. SergeevEmail author
Article
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

Precambrian cyanobacteria demonstrate unprecedented evolutionary conservatism and have remained practically unchanged for the last 2 Ga, considering that ancient forms have counterparts among genera and even species of modern microorganisms. However, Proterozoic cyanobacteria and other prokaryotes form unique assemblages of restricted geochronological range and broad spatial distribution. The most remarkable of these assemblages are the Gunflint-type Paleoproterozoic microbiotas and the Early Riphean Archaeoellipsoides-dominant Kotuikan-type assemblages. Their observed taxonomic uniqueness and short geochronological ranges reflect irreversible changes in the Earth’s global environments, rather than evolutionary innovations. Nonetheless, the fossil blue-green algae demonstrate some evolutionary changes throughout the Proterozoic: the stalked cyanobacteria Polybessurus appeared in the Middle Riphean and the spiral cylindrical cyanobacteria Obruchevella emerged in the Late Riphean.

Keywords:

Precambrian microfossils prokaryotes eukaryotes cyanobacteria 

Notes

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Amrad, B. and Bertrand-Sarfati, J., Microfossils in 2000 Ma old cherty stromatolites of the Franceville Group, Gabon, Precambrian Res., 1997, vol. 81, nos. 3–4, pp. 197–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anbar, A.D., Duan, Y., Lyons, T.W., Arnold, G.L., Kendall, B., Creaser, R.A., Kaufman, A.J., Gordon, G.W., Scott, C., Garvin, J., and Buick, R., A whiff of oxygen before the Great Oxidation Event?, Science, 2007, vol. 317, no. 5846, pp. 1903–1906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Awramik, S.M. and Barghoorn, E.S., The Gunflint microbiota, Precambrian Res., 1977, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 121–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barghoorn, B.S. and Tyler, S.A., Microorganisms from the Gunflint Chert, Science, 1965, vol. 147, no. 3658, pp. 563–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bartley, J.K., Knoll, A.H., Grotzinger, J.P., and Sergeev, V.N., Lithification and Fabric Genesis in Precipitated Stromatolites and Associated Peritidal Carbonates, Mesoproterozoic Billiakh Group, Siberia, in Carbonate Sedimentation and Diagenesis in the Evolving Precambrian World,Grotzinger, J.P. and James, N.P., Eds., SEPM Special Publications, vol. 67, Tulsa, OK: Soc. Sedimentary Geol., pp. 59–73.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bekker, A., Holland, H.D., Wang Pei-ling, Rumble, D. III, Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Coetzee, L.L., and Beukes, N.J., Dating the rise of atmospheric oxygen, Nature, 2004, vol. 427, no. 6970, pp. 117–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belova, M.Yu. and Golovenok, V.K., Late Riphean mineralized microfossils from the Valyukhta Formation of the Baikal–Patom Highland, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 1999, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 105–115.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burzin, M.B., Organic-walled microfossils and events of the Late Vendian in the East European platform, in Stratigrafiya verkhnego proterozoya SSSR: Rifei i vend: Tezisy dokladov II vsesoyuznogo soveshchaniya “Obshchie voprosy raschleneniya dokembriya SSSR” (Stratigraphy of the Upper Proterozoic in the USSR: The Riphean and Vendian: Abstracts of the 2nd All-Union Conference “General Problems in Subdividing the Precambrian of the USSR), Ufa: Bashkirgeologiya, 1990, pp. 37–39.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Butterfield, N.J., Bangiomorpha pubescens n. gen., n. sp.: implications for the evolution of sex, multicellularity, and the Mesoproterozoic/Neoproterozoic radiation of eukaryotes, Paleobiology, 2000, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 386–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Butterfield, N.J., Paleobiology of the late Proterozoic (ca. 1200 Ma) Hunting Formation, Somersed Island, arctic Canada, Precambrian Res., 2001, vol. 111, nos. 1–4, pp. 235–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Butterfield, N.J., Knoll, A.H., and Swett, K., Paleobiology of the Neoproterozoic Svanbergfiellet Formation, Spitsbergen, Bengtson, S., Ed., Fossils and Strata, no. 34, Oslo: Scandinavian Univ. Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cao Fang, Algal microfossils of the middle Proterozoic Gaoyuzhuang Formation in Pinggu County, Beijing, Geol. Rev., 1992, vol. 38, pp. 382–387.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cloud, P.E., Jr., Beginnings of biospheric evolution and their biogeochemical consequences, Paleobiology, 1976, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 351–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cloud, P.E., Jr. and Licari, G.R., Microbiotas of the banded iron formations, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1968, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 779–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cloud, P.E., Jr. and Awramik, S.M., Morrison, K., and Hadlog, B.G., Earliest Phanerozoic or latest Proterozoic fossils from the Arabian Shield, Precambrian Res., 1979, vol. 10, pp. 73–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dobretsov, N.L., Correlation of biological and geological events in the history of Earth and possible mechanisms of biological evolution, Paleontol. J., 2003, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 564–575.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Evans, D.A.D., Veselovsky, R.V., Petrov, P.Yu., Shatsillo, A.V., and Pavlov, V.E., Paleomagnetism of Mesoproterozoic margins of the Anabar Shield: A hypothesized billion-year partnership of Siberia and northern Laurentia, Precambrian Res., 2016, vol. 281, pp. 639–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fedonkin, M.A., Geochemical impoverishment and eukaryotization of the Biosphere: A causal link, Paleontol. J., 2003, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 592–599.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gibson, C.E. and Smith, R.V., Freshwater plankton, The Biology of Cyanobacteria, Carr, N.G. and Whitton, B.A., Eds., Botanical Monographs, vol. 19, Berkeley, Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1982, pp. 463–489.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giovannoni, S.J., Turner, S., Olsen, G.J., Barns, S., Lane, D.J., and Pace, N.R., Evolutionary relationships among cyanobacteria and green chloroplasts, J. Bacteriol., 1988, vol. 170, no. 8, pp. 3584–3592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Golovenok, V.K., Belova, M.Yu., and Kurbatskaya, F.A., The first discovery of Obruchevella in the Vendian of the central Urals, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1989, vol. 309, no. 3, pp. 701–705.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Golubić, S. and Barghoorn, E.S., Interpretation of microbial fossils with special reference to the Precambrian, Fossil Algae: Recent Results and Developments, Flügel, E., Ed., Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1977, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Golubić, S. and Hofmann, H.J., Comparison of Holocene and mid-Precambrian Entophysalidaceae (Cyanophyta) in stromatolitic algal mats: cell division and degradation, J. Paleontol., 1976, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1074–1082.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Golubić, S., Sergeev, V.N., and Knoll, A.H., Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoides: akinetes of heterocystous cyanobacteria, Lethaia, 1995, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 285–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Green, J.W., Knoll, A.H., Golubić, S., and Swett, K., Paleobiology of distinctive benthic microfossils from the upper Proterozoic Limestone–Dolomite “Series,” central East Greenland, Am. J. Bot., 1987, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 928–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Green, J.W., Knoll, A.H., and Swett, K., Microfossils from silicified stromatolitic carbonates of the upper Proterozoic Limestone–Dolomite “Series,” central East Greenland, Geol. Mag., 1989, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 567–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hofmann, H.J., Precambrian microflora, Belcher Islands, Canada: significance and systematics, J. Paleontol., 1976, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1040–1073.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hofmann, H.J. and Schopf, J.W., Early Proterozoic microfossils, in Earth’s Earliest Biosphere: Its Origin and Evolution, Schopf, J.W., Ed., Princeton NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1983, pp. 321–360.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hofmann, H.J. and Grotzinger, J.P., Shelf-facies microbiota from the Odjick and Rocknest Formations (Epworth Group, 1.89 Ga), northwestern Canada, Can. J. Earth Sci., 1985, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1781–1792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hofmann, H.J. and Jackson, C.D., Shelf-facies microfossils from the Uluksan Group (Proterozoic Bylot Supergroup), Baffin Island, Canada, J. Paleontol., 1991, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 361–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Holland, H.D., Early Proterozoic atmospheric change, Early Life on Earth: Nobel Symp. no. 84, Bengtson, S., Ed., New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Horodyski, R.J. and Donaldson, J.A., Microfossils from the Middle Proterozoic Dismal Lakes Group, Arctic Canada, Precambrian Res., 1980, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 125–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jankauskas, T.V., Microfossils from the Riphean of the southern Urals, Stratotip Rifeya: Paleontologiya. Paleomagnetizm (Stratotype of Riphean: Paleontology: Paleomagnetism), Keller, B.M. and Peive, A.V., Eds., Tr. Geol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 368, Moscow: Nauka, 1982, pp. 84–120.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jankauskas, T.V., Mikhailova, N.S., German, T.N., Sergeev, V.N., Abduazimova, Z.M., Belova, M.Yu., Burzin, M.M., Veis, A.F., Volkova, N.A., Golovionok, V.K., Grigorijeva, A.Ye., Kirjanov, V.V., Kozlova, Ye.V., Kolosov, P.N., Kraskov, L.N., et al., Mikrofossilii dokembriya SSSR (Microfossils of the Precambrian of the USSR), Jankauskas, T.V., Ed., Leningrad: Nauka, 1989.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Knoll, A.H., The early evolution of eukaryotes: a geological perspective, Science, 1992, vol. 256, no. 5057, pp. 622–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Knoll, A.H., Life on a Young Planet: The First Three Billion Years of Evolution on Earth, Princeton Sci. Library, Princeton NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 2005.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Knoll, A.H., Cyanobacteria and Earth history, in The Cyanobacteria: Molecular Biology, Genomics and Evolution, Herrero, A., and Flores, E., Eds., Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press, 2008, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Knoll, A.H. and Simonson, B., Early Proterozoic microfossils and penecontemporaneous quartz-cementation in the Sokoman Iron Formation, Canada, Science, 1981, vol. 211, no. 4481, pp. 478–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Knoll, A.H. and Sergeev, V.N., Taphonomic and evolutionary changes across the Mesoproterozoic–Neoproterozoic transition, N. Jb. Geol. Paläontol. Abh., 1995, vol. 195, nos. 1–3, pp. 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Knoll, A.H., Barghoorn, B.S., and Awramik, S.M., New microorganisms from the Aphebian Gunflint Iron Formation, Ontario, J. Paleontol., 1978, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 976–992.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Knoll, A.H., Strother, P.K., and Rossi, S., Distribution and diagenesis of microfossils from the Lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia, Precambrian Res., 1988, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 257–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Knoll, A.H., Swett, K., and Mark, J., Paleobiology of a Neoproterozoic tidal flat/lagoonal complex: the Draken Conglomerate Formation, Spitsbergen, J. Paleontol., 1991, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 531–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kumar, P.P. and Srivastava, P., Microfossils from the Kheinjua Formation, Mesoproterozoic Semri Group, Newari area, central India, Precambrian Res., 1995, vol. 74, nos. 1–2, pp. 91–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    McMenamin, D.S., Kumar, S., and Awramik, S.M., Microbial fossils from the Kheinjua Formation, Middle Proterozoic Semri Group (Lower Vindhyan) Son Valley area, central India, Precambrian Res., 1983, vol. 21, nos. 3–4, pp. 247–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mendelson, C.V. and Schopf, J.W., Proterozoic microfossils from the Sukhaya Tunguska, Shorikha, and Yudoma formations of the Siberian Platform, USSR, J. Paleontol., 1982, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 42–83.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Muir, M.D., Proterozoic microfossils from the Amelia Dolomite, Mcarthur Basin, Northern Territory, Alcheringa, 1976, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 143–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nagovitsin, K.E., Silicified microbiotas from the Upper Riphean of the Yenisey Ridge, East Siberia, Novosti Paleontol. Stratigr. (prilozhenie k zhurn. “Geol. Geofiz.”), 2000, vol. 41, nos. 2–3, pp. 7–31.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nagovitsin, K.E., New Late Riphean composite microfossils from the Yenisei Ridge, Paleontol. J., 2001, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 225–232.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Oehler, J.H., Microflora of the H.Y.C. Pyritic Shale Member of the Barney Creek Formation (McArthur Group), middle Proterozoic of northern Australia, Alcheringa, 1977, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 315–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Oehler, D.Z., Microflora of the middle Proterozoic Balbirini Dolomite (McArthur Group) of Australia, Alcheringa, 1978, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 269–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rai, V. and Singh, V.K., Discovery of Obruchevella Reitlinger, 1948 from the late Palaeoproterozoic lower Vindhyan succession and its significance, J. Palaeontol. Soc. India, 2004, vol. 49, pp. 189–196.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rasmussen, B., Bose, P.K., Sarkar, S., Banerjee, S., Fletcher, I.R., and McNaughton, N.J., 1.6 Ga U–Pb zircon age for the Chorhat Sandstone, lower Vindhyan, India: Possible implications for early evolution of animals, Geology, 2002, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 103–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Reitlinger, E.A., Atlas mikroskopicheskikh organicheskikh ostatkov i problematiki drevnikh tolshch Sibiri (Atlas of Microscopic Organic Remains and Problematica from Ancient Rocks of Siberia), Menner, V.V., Ed., Tr. Geol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 25, Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1959.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rozanov, A.Yu. and Astafieva, M.M., A unique find of the earliest multicellular algae in the Lower Proterozoic (2.45 Ga) of the Kola Peninsula, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 2013, vol. 449, no. 1, pp. 96–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rozanov, A.Yu., Astafieva, M.M., Vrevsky, A.B., Alfimova, N.A., and Matrenichev, V.A., Microfossils of the Early Precambrian continental weathering crusts of the Fennoscandian Shield, Otechest. Geol., 2008, no. 3, pp. 83–90.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rozhnov, S.V., At the dawn of the aerobic biosphere: The oxygen role in the development of biota in the Proterozoic and Early Paleozoic, Problemy evolyutsii biosfery (Problems of Biosphere Evolution), Rozhnov, S.V., Ed., Ser. Geo-Biologicheskie Protsessy v Proshlom, Moscow: Paleontol. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2013, pp. 95–118.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sánchez-Baracaldo, P., Ridgwell, A., and Raven, J., A Neoproterozoic transition in the marine nitrogen cycle, Curr. Biol., 2014, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 652–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schirrmeister, B.E., Gugger, M., and Donoghue, C.J., Cyanobacteria and the Great Oxidation Event: evidence from genes and fossils, Palaeontology, 2015, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 769–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schopf, J.W., Microflora of the Bitter Springs Formation, Late Precambrian, central Australia, J. Paleontol., 1968, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 651–688.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schopf, J.W., Geological evidence of oxygenic photosynthesis and the biotic response to the 2400–2200 Ma “Great Oxidation Event,” Biochemistry (Moscow), 2014, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 165–177.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schopf, J.W., Kudryavtsev, A.B., and Sergeev, V.N., Confocal lazer scanning microscopy and Raman imagery of the late Neoproterozoic Chichkan microbiota of South Kazakhstan, J. Paleontol., 2010, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 402–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schopf, J.W., Sergeev, V.N., and Kudryavtsev, A.B., A new approach to ancient microorganisms: taxonomy, paleoecology, and biostratigraphy of the Lower Cambrian Berkuta and Chulaktau microbiotas of South Kazakhstan, J. Paleontol., 2015, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 695–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Semikhatov, M.A. and Raaben, M.E., Dynamics of global diversity of stromatolites. Paper 1: Northern Eurasia, China, and India, Stratigr. Geol. Korrelyatsiya, 1994, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 10–32.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Semikhatov, M.A., Raaben, M.E., Sergeev, V.N., Veis, A.F., and Artemova, O.V., Biotic events and positive C-carb anomaly at 2.3–2.06 Ga, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 1999, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 413–436.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sergeev, V.N., Okremnennye mikrofossilii dokembriya i kembriya Urala i Srednei Azii (Silicified Microfossils of the Precambrian and Cambrian of the Urals and Central Asia), Semikhatov, M.A., Ed., Tr. Geol. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk, vol. 474, Moscow: Nauka, 1992.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sergeev, V.N., Silicified microfossils from the Riphean deposits of the Anabar Uplift, Stratigr. Geol. Korrelyatsiya, 1993, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 35–50.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sergeev, V.N., Microfossils in cherts from the Middle Riphean (Mesoproterozoic) Avzyan Formation, Southern Ural Mountains, Russian Federation, Precambian Res., 1994, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 231–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sergeev, V.N., Okremnennye mikrofossilii dokembriya: priroda, klassifikatsiya i biostratigraficheskoe znachenie (Silicified Microfossils of the Precambrian: Nature, Classification, and Biostratigraphic Significance), Semikhatov, M.A., Ed., Tr. Geol. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk, vol. 567, Moscow: GEOS, 2006a.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sergeev, V.N., The importance of Precambrian microfossils for modern biostratigraphy, Paleontol. J., 2006b, vol. 40, Suppl. no. 5, pp. 664–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sergeev, V.N., The distribution of microfossil assemblages in Proterozoic rocks, Precambrian Res., 2009, vol. 173, nos. 1–4, pp. 212–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sergeev, V.N. and Lee Seong-Joo, New data on silicified microfossils from the Satka Formation of the Lower Riphean Stratotype, the Urals, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 2004, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–21.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sergeev, V.N. and Schopf, J.W., Taxonomy, paleoecology, and biostratigraphy of the late Neoproterozoic Chichkan microbiota of South Kazakhstan: the marine biosphere on the eve of metazoan radiation, J. Paleontol., 2010, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 363–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sergeev, V.N., Knoll, A.H., Kolosova, S.P., and Kolosov, P.N., Microfossils in cherts from the Mesoproterozoic (Middle Riphean) Debengda Formation, the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 1994, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 23–38.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sergeev, V.N., Knoll, A.H., and Grotzinger, G.P., Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia, Mem. Paleontol. Soc., 1995, vol. 39, pp. 1–37.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sergeev, V.N., Knoll, A.H., and Petrov, P.Yu., Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic–Neoproterozoic transition: the Sukhaya Tunguska Formation, Turukhansk Uplift, Siberia, Precambian Res., 1997, vol. 85, pp. 201–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sergeev, V.N., Semikhatov, M.A., and Mudrenko, L.M., Microfossils in Microphytolites of the Paleoproterozoic Gunflint Formation, Southern Canada, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 1998, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 462–479.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sergeev, V.N., Semikhatov, M.A., Fedonkin, M.A., Veis, A.F., and Vorob’eva, N.G., Principal stages in evolution of Precambrian organic world: Communication 1. Archean and Early Proterozoic, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 2007, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 141–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sergeev, V.N., Semikhatov, M.A., Fedonkin, M.A., and Vorob’eva, N.G., Principal stages in evolution of Precambrian organic world: Communication 2. The Late Proterozoic, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 2010, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 561–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sergeev, V.N., Knoll, A.H., Vorob’eva, N.G., and Sergeeva, N.D., Microfossils from the lower Mesoproterozoic Kaltasy Formation, East European Platform, Precambrian Res., 2016, vol. 278, pp. 87–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sharma, M. and Sergeev, V.N., Genesis of carbonate precipitate patterns and associated microfossils in Mesoproterozoic formations of India and Russia—a comparative study, Precambrian Res., 2004, vol. 134, nos. 3–4, pp. 317–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Song Xueliang, Obruchevella from the early Cambrian Meishucun Stage of the Meishucun section, Jinning, Yunnan, China, Geol. Mag., 1984, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 179–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Stanevich, A.M., Maksimova, E.N., Kornilova, T.A., Gladkochub, D.P., Mazukabzov, A.M., and Donskaya, T.V., Microfossils from the Arymas and Debengda Formations, the Riphean of the Olenek Uplift: age and presumable nature, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 2009, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 20–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Strother, P.K., Knoll, A.H., and Barghoorn, E.S., Micro-organisms from the late Precambrian Narssârssuk Formation, north-western Greenland, Palaeontology, 1983, vol. 26, part 1, pp. 1–32.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    The Proterozoic Biosphere: A Multidisciplinary Study, Schopf, J.W. and Klein, C., Eds., Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tomitani Akiko, Knoll, A.H., Cavanaugh, C., and Ohno Terufumi, The evolutionary diversification of cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and paleontological perspectives, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2006, vol. 103, no. 14, pp. 5442–5447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Veis, A.F., Microfossils from the Upper Riphean of the Turukhansk region, Paleontol. Zh., 1984, no. 2, pp. 102–108.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Vorob’eva, N.G., Sergeev, V.N., and Petrov, P.Yu., Kotuikan Formation assemblage: A diverse organic-walled microbiota in the Mesoproterozoic Anabar succession, northern Siberia, Precambrian Res., 2015, vol. 256, pp. 201–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Walter, M.R., Good, A.D.T., and Hall, W.D.M., Microfossils from a newly discovered Precambrian stromatolitic iron formation in Western Australia, Nature, 1976, vol. 261, no. 5557, pp. 221–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wilmotte, A. and Golubić, S., Morphological and genetic criteria in the taxonomy of Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria/Cyanobacteria, Algol. Stud., 1991, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 1–24.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yakshin, M.S., To the problem of microstructure origination in the Early Riphean stratal stromatolites, Iskopaemye problematiki SSSR (Fossil Problematics of the USSR), Sokolov, B.S. and Zhuravleva, I.T., Eds., Tr. Inst. Geol. Geofiz. Sib. Otd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 783, Moscow: Nauka, 1990, pp. 5–12.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yakshin, M.S. and Luchinina, V.A., New data on the fossilized algae of the family Oscillatoriaceae (Kirchn.) Elenkin, Pogranichnye otlozheniya dokembriya i kembriya Sibirskoi platformy (biostratigrafiya, paleontologiya, usloviya obrazovaniya) (Precambrian–Cambrian Boundary Deposits of the Siberian Platform: Biostratigraphy, Paleontology, Formation Conditions), Meshkova, N.P. and Nikolaeva, I.V., Eds., Tr. Inst. Geol. Geofiz. Sib. Otd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 475, Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1981, pp. 28–34.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Zaitseva, T.S., Semikhatov, M.A., Gorokhov, I.M., Sergeev, V.N., Kuznetsov, A.B., Ivanovskaya, T.A., Melnikov, N.N., and Konstantinova, G.V., Isotopic geochronology and biostratigraphy of Riphean deposits of the Anabar Massif, North Siberia, Stratigr. Geol. Correlation, 2016, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 549–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zavarzin, G.A., Bakterii i sostav atmosfery (Bacteria and Atmospheric Composition), Imshenetskii, A.A., Ed., Seriya: Chelovek i Okruzhayushchaya Sreda, Moscow: Nauka, 1984.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Zavarzin, G.A., The Evolvement of the Biosphere, Herald Russ. Acad. Sci., 2001, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 611–622.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zavarzin, G.A., Formation of the system of biogeochemical cycles, Paleontol. J., 2003, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 576–583.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zavarzin, G.A. and Kolotilova, N.N., Vvedenie v prirodovedcheskuyu mikrobiologiyu (An Introduction to Environmental Microbiology), Moscow: Kn. dom “Universitet,” 2001.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zhang Peng-yuan, Zhu Mu, and Song Wu, Middle Proterozoic (1200–1400 Ma) microfossils from the Western Hills near Beijing, China, Canad. J. Earth Sci., 1989, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 322–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zhang Yun, Proterozoic stromatolite microfloras of the Gaoyuzhuang Formation (early Sinian: Riphean), Hebei, China, J. Paleontol., 1981, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 485–506.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Zhang Yun, A Gunflint type of microfossil assemblage from early Proterozoic stromatolitic cherts in China, Nature, 1984, vol. 309, no. 5968, pp. 547–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zhang Yun, Stromatolitic microbiota from the middle Proterozoic Wumishan Formation (Jixian Group) of the Ming Tombs, Bejing:, Precambrian Res., 1985, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 277–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Zhang Yun and Golubić, S., Endolithic microfossils (cyanophyta) from early Proterozoic stromatolites, Hebei, China, Acta Micropalaeontol. Sin., 1987, vol. 4, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geological Institute, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations